Chad is one of the most underdeveloped countries in the world because of its climate, geographic location, and a lack of infrastructure and natural resources. It's main cash crop that is helping it's economy is cotton, which accounts for 48% of exports.1 The industry of Chad is mainly based on processing agricultural products. It is run by a republican government and it's legal system is based on French civil law system and Chadian customary law. The recent president is Idriss Deby and head of government is Prime Minister Joseph Yodoyman Chad had gained its independence from France on August 11, 1960. Its national holiday is held on the same day every year.
The geography of Chad is mostly pastures and meadows. Chad is located in Central Africa and is between the Central African Republic and Libya. The total area is 1,259,200 km2, and the land area is 1,259,200 km2.2 The total size in area of Chad is slightly more than three times the size of California. The land boundaries of Chad are; Cameroon (1,094 km), Central African Republic (1,197 km), Libya (1,055 km), Niger (1,175 km), Nigeria (87 km), and Sudan (1,360 km).3 All of these countries total to 5,968 km. Chad is landlocked which has no coastline. It has no marital claims. The disputes between Chad and other countries is that Libya claims and occupies the 100,000 km2 Aozou Strip in the far north. The year around climate is tropical in the south, and desert in the north. The terrain is broad, arid plains in the center, desert in the north, lowlands in the south and mountains in the northwest. The natural resources are petroleum, uranium, natron, kaolin, and fish. The land use consists of arable land (2%), permanent crops (0%), meadows and pastures (36%), forest and woodland (11%), and other (51%).4 The irrigated land used is 100km2. Its environment is hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in the north, drought and desertification affecting much of the south, and subject to plagues of locusts.
The people of Chad rely on agriculture for survival. The total population is 5,350,971 people. The growth rate of the population is 2.13%. The birth rate is 42.21 births / 1,000 population. The death rate is 20.93 deaths / 1,000 population. The migration rate is 0% migrants / 1,000 population. Chad's death at infancy is at a great risk at 134 deaths / 1,000 live births. For infants the expectancy rate at birth is 40.41 years. The rate for males is 39.36 years and the rate for females is 41.5 years. Total fertility rate is 5.33 children born/women. The people of Chad are Chadian in nationality. The ethnic divisions in the north are Muslim (Arabs. Toubou, Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko, Kanembou, Baguirmi, Boulala, Zaghawa, and Maba). In the south are non-Muslims (Sara, Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye, Moundang, Moussei, Massa). The religions of Chad are Muslim (44%), Christian (33%), indigenous beliefs, and animism (23%). The common spoken languages in Chad are Sara (spoken in south), Sango (spoken in north). The official languages of Chad are French and Arabic. There are over 100 different languages and dialects spoken in Chad. The literacy rate is at age 15 and over people can read and write French or Arabic. The total population of literacy is 30%. 42% for males and 18% for females.
Chad has a republican government. The capital of Chad is N'djamena. It's administrative divisions are 14 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture); Batha, Biltine, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, Chari-Baguirmi, Guera, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mayo-Kebbi, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, and Tandjile. Chad had gained its independence on August 11, 1960, from France. They had gained their constitution on December 22, 1989. Chad's legal system is based on French civil law system and Chadian customary law, it has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction. The national holiday is held on the 11th of August. The political parties and leaders of Chad are the Patriotic Salvation Movement, Idriss Deby, and chairman. There are no other political party or pressure groups. Elections were last held on July 8, 1990 and disbanded on December 3, 1990. The Executive branch in Chad's government consists of the president and the Council of State (cabinet). The Legislative branch consists of unicameral National Consultative Council (Conseil National Consultatif) but was replaced by the Provisional Council of the Republic, with 30 members appointed by President Deby on March 8, 1991. The Judicial branch consists of the Court of Appeal. The Chief of State leader is Col. Idress Deby since December 4, 1990 and the Head of Government is Prime Minister Joseph Yodoyman since August 1992. Chad is a member of ASST, ACP, AFDB, BDEAC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT, IRBD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO, and WTO.
Chad's flag has three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the flag of Andorra, which has a national cost of arms featuring a quartered shield centered in the yellow band; design was based on the flag of France.
An overview of Chad's economy; the climate and geographic location, and lack of infrastructure and natural resources make Chad one of the most underdeveloped countries in the world. Its economy is burdened by the ravages of civil war, conflict with Libya, drought and food shortages. In 1986 real GDP returned to its 1977 level, with cotton the major cash crop, accounting for 48% of exports. Over 80% of the work force is employed in subsistence farming and fishing. Industry is based almost entirely on the processing of agricultural products, including cotton, sugarcane, and cattle.5 Chad is highly dependent on foreign aid, with its economy in trouble and many regions suffering from shortages. Oil companies are exploring areas north of Lake Chad and in the Doba basin in the south. Good crop weather led to 8.4% growth in 1991. The GDP exchange rate conversion is $1.1 billion. The national product per capita is $215. Inflation rate is 2%-3%. The budget revenues are $115 million, expenditures are $412 million, including capital expenditures of $218 million. Exports are $193.9 million, commodities are; cotton 48%, cattle 35%, and textiles 5%.6 Their partners are France, United States, Nigeria, and Cameroon. Their imports are $294.1 million and its commodities are; machinery and transportation equipment 39%, industrial goods 20%, petroleum products 13%, and foodstuffs 9%. Its partners are France, United States, Cameroon, and Nigeria. Chad's external debt is $492 million. The industrial production in growth rate is 12.9%, which accounts for nearly 15% of GDP. The electricity rate is 40,000 kW capacity in which 70 million kWh is produced, 15 kWh per capita. Industries in Chad are cotton textile mills, slaughter houses, brewery, natron, soap, and cigarettes. Chad's currency is 1 CFA franc = 100 centimes.7
The economy of Chad has very low standards. The exchange rates are communaute Financiere Africaine Francs (CFAF per US $1 - 274.06 in January 1993, 264.69 in 1992, 282.11 in 1991, 272.26 in 1990, 319.01 in 1989, and 297.85 in 1988.8 Chad's fiscal year is a calendar year.
The highways in Chad total to 31,322 km, 32 km bituminous, 7,300 km gravel and laterite, and the remainder is unimproved earth.9 Inland waterways are 2,000 km navigable. Airports total to 69. The usable airports total to 55. Permanent-surface runways total to 5 airports. The telecommunications department in Chad is a fair system of radio communication stations for intercity links; broadcast stations - 6am, 1fm, limited television service; many facilities are inoperative; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station.
Chad's defense forces consist of the branches, manpower, and defense expenditures. In the branches there is the Army and the Republican Guard. In the manpower availability males age from 15 to 49, total count is 1,246,617; fit for military service 647,908; reach military age is 20 and annually 52,870.10 In defense expenditures the exchange rate conversion is $58 million and 5.6% of GDP.