Sunday, December 30, 2012

Top of Volcano Blown of in Blast!

Top of Volcano Blown Off In Blast! 18/04/82
60 people were killed today when Mt. St Helens blew its top

Mt. St Helens erupted two years ago today in a blast that caused the volcano to be reduced by 451 metres (1313 feet). The volcano is south-western Washington and is part of the Cascade Range.

Mt. St Helens had been dormant since 1859 and has let off its first blast since then today. The volcano killed all life in an area of 180 sq. cm(70 sq. miles) including at least 60 people! The ash and dust spread much farther than this, of course. Today it is continuing to emit to emit dust and ash at intervals. Today a monument has been erected called the National Volcano Monument, in memory of this tragedy.

How A Volcano is Formed

A volcano is formed in this way:

1)Magma starts off below the crust.
2)Magma collects in chamber.
3) Pressure rises.

4) The pressure rises so high that the magma breaks through the crust and volcano erupts.

Often volcanoes are cone shaped. You might ask: "How do they get like that?"
This is the answer:
When a volcano erupts many minerals and fragments are blown up, many falling in a circle around the volcano. As lava flows onto this it builds up around the volcano, so the volcano gets higher still. Each time the volcano erupts, more lava, minerals and fragments are emitted. Therefore every time a volcano erupts it erupts it gets taller, and some like Mt. St. Helens have even become tall enough to be classed a mountain.

NB: This article originally contained pictures, elongating it and making it better presented.

(c)Aron Cohen,1991



Until the early 20th century, Canada was primarily an agricultural nation. Since then it has become one of the most highly industrialized countries in the world as a direct result of the development of the 'heartland'. To a large extent the manufacturing industries present in the heartland are supplied with raw materials produced by the agricultural, mining, forestry, and fishing sectors of the Canadian economy, a region known as the 'hinterland'. The 'heartland-hinterland' concept in Canada describes patterns of economic power, namely, where economic power and control resides within the nation. Thus, the heartland-hinterland concept distinguishes raw-material and staple-producing hinterlands from the capital service industrial heartland and reveals the metropolis or dominating city of the system. At a national scale, the Canadian metropolis is Toronto, and the region with the most influence is the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Lowlands. But while immense influence radiates outward from the metropolis located in the heartland, the relationship between hinterland and heartland is one of intimate mutual dependency. In modern Canadian economics, neither region can exist without each other, and the well-being of one directly affects the other. These two regions show remarkable contrasts, yet they are to a large extent interdependent on each other, clearly suggesting that the heartland-hinterland distinction is quite relevant in terms of Canada's economic geography.

Upon discussing the importance of the heartland-hinterland in Canada, it is necessary to discuss what each term refers to. According to McCann the heartland is an area "... which possesses favourable physical qualities and grant food accessibility to markets; they display a diversified profile of secondary, tertiary, and quaternary industries; they are characterized by a highly urbanized and concentrated population which participates in a well-integrated urban system; they are well advanced along the development path and possess the capacity for innovative change." Literally, hinterland means 'the land behind', the area from which a heartland draws its raw materials and which, in turn, serves as a market for the heartland's manufactured goods.

The demographic and economic characteristics of Canada's heartland are that it contains over 50% of the nation's population and 70% of its manufacturing industries in only 14% of the nation's area. Canada's heartland is southern Ontario and Quebec stretching from Quebec City to Windsor. This heartland, occupying the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Lowlands, coincides with several favourable physical characteristics such as fertile Class 1 and 2 soils in addition to humid continental climate for optimal agricultural conditions. However, the "hinterland regions display harsher or more limiting physical characteristics. The Cordillera, Interior Plains, Canadian Shield, and Appalachian regions yield tremendous resource wealth, but their soils, vegetation, and climatic patterns do not favor wide distributions of population and concentrated development." Canada's heartland is illustrated on the map below.

With the overwhelming presence of the above-mentioned features, this region dominates Canada's economy due to diverse agricultural production as well as its accessibility to the heartland of its major international trade partner, the Untied States, which is focused around New York City. "It is the heartland that creates the demand for staple commodities, supplying the hinterland, in turn, with capital, labour, technology, and entrepreneurship, those factors of production which are so essential for the initial growth and sustained development of the hinterland."

The relationship between the hinterland and heartland is complex. Resources flowing from hinterland areas largely go directly to other countries without passing through the heartland. Yet, it is from the heartland that an economy's organization, financial means, equipment, and technical services arise and are paid for by the sale of the resources. Thus, it can be said the hinterland contributes to the support and development of the heartland. The hinterland also benefits from the interaction of its well-developed internal linkages and a large and concentrated workforce that provides a manufacturing core and specialized services.

Another important aspect of the heartland-hinterland distinction is with respect to regional structure, which involves the interaction of both regions. "Locational forces and even policy decisions of a political nature draw secondary manufacturing and service activities, as well as skilled labour force, to core areas." The concentration of corporate headquarters and financial institutions in the core also causes a flow of profits from the hinterland to the heartland, ultimately causing difficulty for the generation of capital within the periphery. These circumstances which arise from the root of the hinterland underdevelopment problem are difficult to overcome without political involvement. Although government assistance by means of transfer payments and developmental projects helps the underdeveloped hinterland, it can by no means resolve the apparent disparities present among the core and periphery regions in Canada. "If the disparities are to be diminished, it seems more likely that hinterland areas must develop generally according to the ways in which heartland areas have developed, although the specific growth factors need not, nor would they likely, be the same." A hinterland region, wishing to achieve heartland status, must be capable of innovating change and wielding power, while progressing beyond the staple production phase for the heartland.

In terms of merchandise trade, Canada is an importer of end-products while the export of crude materials indicate the staple nature of the export economy. The hinterland dominates the export trade in crude materials such as oil, natural gas, and forest products. Fabricated materials are largely produced in the core, and most of the products (steel, copper wire, refined nickel, and rolled aluminum) are exported. Canada's exports therefore are primarily staples from the hinterland, and as the amount of processing increases the role of the heartland becomes more dominant.

In terms of imports, crude materials, largely crude oil to eastern Canada and subtropical foods, are the main imports. Fabricated materials and end-products imported from the United States were predominantly motor vehicles and auto parts, and the exports from Canada also involved the motor vehicle sector. Thus, the hinterland clearly dominates exports of crude materials and foods, while the heartland is the centre of both exports and imports of fabricated products.

The economic emphasis of the 'heartland-hinterland' distinction is quite pronounced in Canada. Various aspects of the Canadian economy dictate the undoubted relevance between the core and periphery of this vast nation. At one extreme, the heartland is a thriving economic region, with the Golden Horseshoe region acting as the collective metropolis, whereas the hinterland, 'the rest of Canada', is characterized by primary resource production, scattered population and a limited innovative capacity. Despite the interdependency of these two regions, they are nonetheless separated by both economic and physical factors, thereby preventing the union of a common region. Therefore, there is an unquestionable 'heartland-hinterland' distinction present in Canada in terms of its economic geography.


Matthews, G. 1995. Canada and the World, An Atlas Resource, 2nd Edition. Scarborough:
Prentice Hall Canada Inc.

McCann, L.D. 1987. Heartland and Hinterland. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall Canada Inc.

The principal problems now facing Mexico City

The principal problems now facing Mexico City are its overcrowding and overpopulation, its dangerous environment, its dwindling water supply, and its terrible air pollution.
One of Mexico City's problems is that it has an enormous population that continues to rapidly increase every day. There are many people that move to Mexico City and many people that are born there every year. These factors contribute even more to its overcrowding and overpopulation. Another problem is Mexico City's habitat. It is located in the Valley of Mexico, which is highly vulnerable to volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. These natural disasters cause much destruction to Mexico City. Yet still another problem with Mexico City's habitat is the overall instability that is caused by the fact that much of the city is located on a weak, dry-lakebed surface.
Mexico City's rapidly diminishing water supply creates another dangerous problem. Once its water supply is gone, the only way to receive water will be to transport it from across the mountains. Not only does the city have to pipe water in, but it also has to pipe the sewage out of waste-filled areas. This would be a very expensive undertaking and could cost Mexico City a large amount of money. Mexico City's worsening air pollution is the most dangerous problem and health hazard presently facing the city. The air in the city is so polluted that at times the air quality exceeds 100 times the acceptable level. Thousands of factories and millions of vehicles are the main causes of the air pollution in Mexico City. Mexico City has many problems at the present time, and it does not look as if it is going to get much better in the future.

The Population Solution

1. Most people assume that human numbers will stabilize at some point in the future. Discuss the conditions which can contribute to the solution of the population explosion.
- The Population Solution -

"Let us suppose that the average human being weighs 60 kilogram's. If that's the case then 100,000,000,000,000,000,000 people would weigh as much as the whole Earth does. That number of people is 30,000,000,000,000 times as many people as there are living today. It may seem to you that the population can go up a long, long time before it reaches the point where there are 30,000,000,000,000 times as many people as there are today. Let's think about that though. Let us suppose that the population growth rate stays at 2.0 per cent so that the number of people in the world continues to double every 35 years. How long, then, will it take for the world's population to weigh as much as the entire planet? The answer is - not quite 1,600 years. This means that by 3550 AD, the human population would weight as much as the entire planet.... Even if that were possible, it wouldn't give us much time. If the growth-rate stays at 2.0 per cent, then in a little over 2,200 years - say, by 4220 AD - the human population would weigh as much as the entire Solar system, including the Sun... and by about 6700 AD - the human population would weigh as much as the entire Universe." The preceding paragraph, by Isaac Asimov describes quite alarmingly just how bad the population problem really is, that in considerably less time that has passed since the days of Julius Caesar the population will equal in mass of that of the earth. Most people assume that human numbers will stabilize at some point in the future. Hopefully it will, but not without conditions that will contribute to the solution of the population explosion, conditions which include education, birth control methods and government action.

Although not the largest in terms of population size, Kenya has one of the highest rates natural increase in the world. This rapid growth rate, which is predicted to reach 120 million by the year 2050, is primarily due to high birthrates and low death rates. Alarmingly, more than half of its population is under the age of 15. This is partly due to the fact that before western influence, health care was relatively poor and families needed to be large in order to guarantee the survival of at least a couple of children to take care of both the land and the elderly. Presently, with much improved health care and substantially lower infant mortality rates, Kenyans are still opting for large family sizes, an average of 8 children per family. This is where education can inform Kenyans and citizens of other countries facing similar problems that large families are no longer necessary to ensure survival. There are also some serious problems that come with educating completely different cultures. For example, Kenyan men believe that if you do not have a large family and many male offspring, you are not considered a man. Also, many cultures promote large family sizes to ensure security and military status. Some may even reject education for the fear that it is a continuing form of colonialism or imperialism and that western attempts to reduce Third World populations is backed up by racist rational. These problems could be overcome by exposing children at a young age in their schools with material promoting small family sizes. The education of adults can also contribute to reducing the population explosion, mainly with the education of women. In most third world countries, the woman's job is to take care of the children, but when educated, most will want to pursue other lifestyles such as a career instead of adding to the population problem. Another form of education that can contribute to the population problem is to educated both men and women on the use of contraceptives or birth control.

Even though statistics say that the world is headed towards a disastrously increasing overuse of precious resources because of its increasing population, many still stand against the use of contraceptives and other forms of birth control. Even those educated on the population problem regard birth control as unnecessary and perhaps even undesirable. Individuals, groups and nations who hold such views may do so for military, political, religious or even economic reasons. At one time, the Roman government rewarded mothers and taxed bachelors and the USSR passed laws that made abortion and even contraception illegal. Many pronationalist equate military or political power with a larger population and believe that it provides both a larger labour force and a larger market. They must be informed that birth control can avoid a large population which presses on the environment and its resources and take away from the capital available for new investment. Crowded cities usually equals mass unemployment which causes political turmoil. At present, the strongest opposition to birth control comes as a result to religious ideals. The Roman Catholic church still continues to ban all forms of birth control except periodic abstinence. The global education of birth control must not only encourage the use of birth control and make it more readily available, but also dispel any myths about it. A common myth among Italian women are that pills are harmful to the body, causing circulation problems, tumors and even deforming future children.

When most people learn of China's one child policy, they usually declare it a violation of the basic human right of reproduction. This may be true, but the one child policy is working in reducing China's rate of natural increase. Even still, the one child policy will not stop the growth in population, with an estimated increase of roughly the population of the United States by the year 2000. On the other hand, without it, China's population will reach gigantic numbers. Implementing such a policy in other countries such as the democratic United States will most likely create a severe opposition from such groups as the woman's rights movement. One possibility to avoid a national uprising is to instead of creating an actual policy, is to campaign through the use of television, radio, and other forms of communication that strongly promotes a two child or even one child family. Nevertheless, government action must be taken now, whether it be to create more jobs, improve pensions, reduce family sizes and/or promote the use of birth control.

As Isaac Asimov clearly states it, our planet is facing certain doom if measures are not taken quickly to avoid it. At different points in human history, we faced the danger of becoming extinct, from the overpowering animals in prehistoric times to the overpowering nuclear weapons during the Cold War. Today, our problem is very different and much more severe, the problem is that there will be simply too many humans for the earth to handle. As Tomas Robert Malthus puts it, "The power of population is indefinitely greater than the power of the earth to produce subsistence for man." Without conditions such as global education, birth control and government action which will contribute to the population problem, Isaac Asimov's unbelievable theory may one day speak the truth.


Asimov, Isaac. "Let's suppose..." Earth: Our Crowded Spaceship. New York: John Day Co., 1974

Global Issues, 96/97 ed. Connecticut: Dushkin Publishing Group / Brown & Benchmark Publishers. Pp. 42-44, 45-49,50-59,73-77

Malthus, Thomas Robert. An Essay on the Principle of Population. London: Printed for J. Johnson, in St. Paul's Church-yard, 1798.

Myers, Norman Dr. Gaia. An Atlas of Planet Management. New York: Anchor Press / Doubled & Company Inc., 1984

Noble, Mike. Population

Suzuki, David. Exponential Growth us Merely Another case if False Worship, unknown source

The Physical and Economic Geography Of Canada


Canada, is the world¹s second largest country and it is the largest country in the Western Hemisphere. It comprises all of the North American continent north of the United States, with the exclusion of Alaska, Greenland, and the tiny French islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon. Its most easterly point is Cape Spear, Newfoundland and its western limit is Mount St. Elias in the Yukon Territory, near the Alaskan border. The southernmost point is Middle Island, in Lake Erie and the northern tip is Cape Columbia, on Ellesmere Island.

Canada is bounded on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the west by the pacific Ocean, and on the east by the Atlantic Ocean and its associated bodies of water, including Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea.

Canada has an abundance of mineral, forest, and water-power resources. The mining industry has been a major force in Canada¹s economic development in the past and is still the main force in the advance and economic activity and permanent settlement into the northlands. The principal minerals are petroleum, nickel, copper, zinc, iron ore, natural gas, asbestos, molybdenum, sulfur, gold, and platinum; in addition extensive beds of coal, potash, uranium, gypsum, silver, and magnesium are found.

Fresh water covers an estimated 756 276 sq km or 7.6% of Canada. The many rivers and lakes supply ample fresh water to meet the nation¹s needs for its communities and for irrigation, agriculture, industries, transportation, and hydroelectric power generation. Canada has four principal drainage basins: the Atlantic Basin which drains to the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River, the Hudson Bay Basin which drains northward into Hudson Bay via the Churchill, Nelson and Saskatchewan rivers, the Arctic Basin which is drained by the Mackenzie River and the Pacific Basin which drains into the Pacific Ocean via the Fraser, Yukon and Columbia rivers.

Canada has six major physical, or physiographic, regions: the Canadian Shield, the Arctic Islands, the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Lowlands, the Appalachian Region, the Interior Plains, and the Cordilleran Region.

In simple terms, Canada can be considered a vast, saucer-shaped basin, bordered by mountainous lands on the west, east, and northeast. Hudson Bay and the lowlands along its southern shore form the central depression of this ³saucer². Surrounding this depression on all sides, including Baffin Island, is the Canadian Shield (also known as the Laurentian Plateau or Laurentian Upland). The Canadian Shield is a region of ancient, mostly Precambrian rocks that covers nearly half of Canada. The Canadian Shield includes all of Labrador and large areas of Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, and the Northwest Territories. As a result of glacial action during the Pleistocene Ice Age, much of the region is covered with numerous lakes and marshy areas as well as rolling hills from worn down mountains. The Canadian Shield was formed in the early Paleozoic era and is composed of igneous rock. Podzolic soils, which are soils of low natural fertility cover much of this area, they are also quite wet from the climate. The climate in this area varies quite a bit due to the different levels of elevation. Arctic climate conditions are found in the northern areas, these areas generally have dry and cold conditions. Boreal conditions are found in the midsection, the conditions are generally cold and wet. South-Eastern climate conditions are found in the south, these climate conditions are generally cool and wet. Precipitation is fairly heavy in northern Quebec and Labrador. The climate and acidic soils in this area do not create proper conditions for agriculture. Some coniferous and deciduous forests are found in this area as well as, shrubs, litchen and heath.

The Arctic Islands lie to the northwest of the central depression and constitute about 8.3% of Canada¹s land area. They are mostly covered by permanent snow and ice fields. The northern sections of the region include the United States Range, which reaches 2926 m in northern Ellesmere Island. The southern sections are lower in altitude and are sometimes referred to collectively as the Arctic Lowlands and Plateaus. The Arctic Mountains are primarily composed of igneous and metamorphic rock. The mountains are very young mountains with jagged peaks. The Arctic Lowlands are made solely of sedimentary rock. Glaciation has worn down the land in this area leaving it flat with some rounded hills. Tundra and subarctic soils cover all of this area and ice and stone deserts are found over large areas as well. The subsoil in much of this area is permanently frozen, and the soils are unsuitable for agriculture. The sparsely settled northern areas have an arctic, or tundra, type of climate on the islands and northern coastal areas and a subarctic type of climate in the vast transitional area between the frozen north and the settled south. The arctic type of climate is characterized by long, very cold winters, with average temperatures far below freezing and no summer month with an average temperature higher than 10 degrees C. In the subarctic areas, winters are similarly long and bitterly cold, but summers are warm enough to support some vegetation growth. Precipitation is generally light in the western areas of the arctic and subarctic regions. Despite the low precipitation, snow covers the ground permanently for more than 6 months of every year. Tundra vegetation covers most of this area. The low temperatures and permanently frozen subsoil inhibits the growth of most plants except the hardy mosses and lichens. Various grasses and flowers are also found. Trees are absent, except for dwarf trees and some berry-bearing shrubs.

The Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Lowlands region constitutes only 1.3% of Canada but is the area where most people live. It is composed of sedimentary rock. It is a flat to gently rolling region that extends southwest from Quebec City to Lake Huron and includes all of the St. Lawrence River valley and the Ontario Peninsula, a triangular, densely populated area of southern Ontario that is bordered by the shores of Lakes Huron, Erie, and Ontario. Brown and gray brown podzilic soils cover most of this area. These soils are naturally fertile and, when properly farmed, support a wide range of crops and other agricultural activities. The climate here is a more humid version of a continental type of climate. The winters are long and cold with an average temperature of -10 degrees C in the eastern sections and -4 degrees C in the Ontario Peninsula, and short warm summers with average temperatures of near 20 degrees C. Eastern forests are native to this area, both deciduous trees such as sugar maple and beech and coniferous trees such as yellow pine, white and red pine,and hemlock are found here.

The Appalachian Region occupies approximately 3.4% of Canada and is the northward continuation into Canada of the Appalachian Mountain system of the eastern United States. It includes all of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and the island of Newfoundland and forms most of Quebec¹s Gaspe Peninsula. It is composed of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rock. It is a region of geologically old, worn-down uplands, with summits ranging from 150 m to more than 1270 m. The highest and most rugged mountains are the Shickshock Mountains of the Gaspe Peninsula, where Mount Jacques Cartier rises to 1270 m. Podzolic soils, which are soils of low natural fertility are most extensive in this area. They are found to be quite acidic, gray in colour and leached of soil nutrients, but they are suitable for farming if fertilizers are used. Frontal weather conditions are found here as a result of the meeting of the tropical maritime air mass and the maritime air mass. The mean annual precipitation is quite high here as well. Boreal, or northern, coniferous forest as well as deciduous forests are found here, but they are considered to be non-productive due to expensive costs.

The Interior Plains lie between the Canadian Shield and the Rocky Mountains and are a continuation of the Great Plains of the United States. The region occupies 18.3% of Canada. It extends to the Arctic coast and includes the northeastern section of British Columbia and parts of the prairie provinces of Alberta. Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. The area is composed of sedimentary rock. It is an area of flat land with some rolling hills. The three chernozemic, or black earth, soils are the most important in this region. They account for nearly all of Canada¹s wheat production. The true chernozem, or black earth, is extremely productive and is found in an arc passing through Winnipeg, Edmonton, and Calgary. To the south forming a more southerly arc passing through Regina, Saskatoon, and Lethbridge, and reflecting a somewhat drier climate of this region, are the dark brown soils. Brown soils predominate in the southern, semiarid parts of the interior plains. The Interior Plains have a middle-latitude steppe-type climate in the drier southern sections and a more humid and extreme continental type of climate elsewhere. Temperatures average about -20 degrees to -15 degrees C in long winters and 18 degrees to 20 degrees C in short summers. Precipitation is not very high here. Many areas receive less than 500 mm a year. Natural grasslands, or prairies, once extended across the southern part of the interior plains. These natural grasslands have been largely plowed under and replaced by field crops, such as; grain, and other mixed farming. The combination of the good soil conditions and climate conditions allows for the production of good crops.

The Cordilleran Region occupies 15.9% of all Canada and includes most of British Columbia and the Yukon Territory and the southwestern corner of Alberta. It is a complex mountain system composed of sedimentary rock and young fold mountains with jagged peaks. The mountains are approximately 800 km wide and they extend along the pacific coast. The three main subsections of the region are the eastern ranges, the western ranges and an intermontane area between the two. The eastern ranges include the Rocky Mountains in the south and the Mackenzie and Richardson Mountains in the north. The western ranges of the region include the St. Elias Mountains, the scenic Coast Mountains, and a partially submerged range that appears offshore; Vancouver Island and the Queen Charlotte Islands. The intermontane section of the Cordilleran Region, located between the eastern and western ranges, is a series of wide, rolling tablelands, such as the Fraser and Kamloops plateaus, and short mountain ranges, such as the Cascade, Cariboo, Selkirk, Monashee, Purcell, Stikine, Skeena, and Hazelton mountains. The soils of the Cordilleran Region, as in all mountain areas, follow attitudinal and climatic zones and, where topography and climate are suitable support a variety of agricultural activity. Precipitation is quite heavy here where moisture-laden winds from the Pacific Ocean are forced to rise over the mountainous coastal regions and bring more than 5000 mm of rain a year in some areas. The third great forest zone is found here due to the humidity. It is a dense, tall-timber forest where Douglas fir, western hemlock, and western red cedar are the dominant trees.

Most of Canada¹s people live in the southern part of the country, in an elongated, discontinuous belt of settlement parallel to the U.S.-Canadian border. The most populated provinces are Ontario, Quebec and British Columbia.

During the last 75 years, the Canadian economy has been transformed from on based primarily on agricultural production and the export of agricultural products and raw materials to one based primarily on its manufacturing and service sectors, as well as a mining sector of continuing importance. Canada¹s economy reflects an affluent high-tech industrial society and resembles the United States, with whom it has close economic ties. This is one reason why a large percentage of the population live by the U.S.-Canadian border. Another reason is because a large number of the manufacturing plants are located in the southern section of Canada.

Canada is rich in natural resources. It is a world leader in value of mineral exports and produces and exports many of the mineral needed for modern industrial economies. It¹s soils which are especially rich in the three prairie provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba, are intensively utilized and make Canada one of the world¹s largest exporters of agricultural products. Forests cover much of the land, and Canada is the world¹s largest exporter of newsprint and a leading supplier of lumber, pulp, paper, and wood products.

The Philippines and the World Market

April 7, 1997
The Philippines and the World Market
The Philippines is considered to be one of the most westernized countries in Asia. It has strong ties to the United States and the United Nations. In fact, It is the only charter member of the U.N. in all of Southeast Asia.
The United States has a very close relationship with the economy and culture of the Philippines. For instance, Filipinos have a strong resentment toward communistic countries. During the cold war, the Philippines supported America by consistently being hostile toward communist countries, and did not maintain diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union or any other communist state.
The United States is the largest foreign consumer of Philippine products. In many ways the survival of the philippine economy depends on the united States. We purchase almost all of the sugar exports, most of the coconut oil, embroidery, at least half of the base metals, and a fourth of the lumber. The United States supplies most of the Philippine imports of machinery, dairy products, cotton, papers, drugs, automobiles and much or the petroleum products. Although countries like Japan, Canada Australia, and New Zealand are getting more and more involved in trade with the Philippines, America remains to be the Philippines most important trading partner.
When America acquired the Philippines and established free trade in 1909, the economy of the islands was tied to that parent country. As a result, the Philippines became almost entirely dependant upon United States markets. Thus, America has had a strong influence on not only the economy of the Philippines, but also the politics of it.
The United States established a public education system in the Philippines in the early 1900¹s. Although they were not American schools they had many similarities. American teachers were used as well as American books. The teachers also taught in english. The Philippine government is even designed after the American system and dedicated to democratic process.
All in all America has become a very strong influence on the Philippines. Even though the exterior plan was to build up the philippine economy and government then let them have their independence, it seems obvious there was a deeper plan to Americanize and economically control the county. Follow the money.

The Namib Desert

Period 6
The Namib Desert

The Namib Desert is a parched and rippled desert, an endless expanse. It stretches along the wouthwest coast of Africa from Angola in the north, through Namibia, into South Africa. The name Namib means "emptiness." About 1,700 km (1,060 mi long and 100 km (60 mi) wide, the desert is bordered on the west by the Atlantic Ocean. The Namib has an approximate area of 170,000 sq km (65,640 sq mi). It rises from sea level 914 m (3,000 ft). Temperatures average 16 deg C (60 deg F). Sands, varying from yellow to red in color, form dunes reaching 240 m (800 ft) in height. The annual rainfall averages only 25 mm (1 in), but high humidity results in fog and dew. In the north deeep canyons have been cut by streams. The area's main rivers, the Orange and the Cunene, follow the southern and northern borders, respectively, of Namibia. One river, the Queeseb, is made of water collected from over 160 km (100 mi) inward. The Queeseb causes water holes, for which many organisms rely on for water besides the actual river itself. Acacia trees grow along the rivers, and short grasses and succulents thrive everywhere. One of the most important animals of the area is the baboon. The baboons excavate for underground water that many other animals depend on. There are many other animals that have adapted to live in the Namib desert farther away from the rivers and streams including 45 species of lizards and more than 200 species of beetles. The nocturnal gecko, like many other animals, burrows in the sand to escape the days heat, 77 deg C (170 deg F). The palmado gecko drinks the moisture that forms on its own body from the fog and dew, as does the sidewinder snake. The sidewinder has adapted a special way of moving in the loose sand which gives it its name. The backflip spider uses a mixture of sand and silk to create shade to keep it cool. Some beetles extract moisture from trenches made in dunes. Much of this knowledge about the animals of the Namib desert is made possible by a research institute in the desert that was established in 1963. The Namib desert is a harsh biome to live in, but organisms have still adapted to life there and formed their own unique ecosystems.

The Maori of New Zealand

The Maori of New Zealand

The Maori people, the natives of New Zealand, have played a strong
part in the development and success of the small island nation. Their ferocity
and determination won the respect of the colonizing English, and to this day
they are esteemed members of the society. They hold positions in their
government and are in control of their own destinies. Their greetings and
posture when having their picture taken for the outside world is a part of
culture that I would like to discuss.
Years ago, back in the days of rampant imperialism, the English navy
found the part of the world that today is referred to as "down under". They
originally came first to Australia, but it was only a matter of time before New
Zealand, Australia's tiny neighbor, was discovered also. The mighty English,
who at the time was one of the world powers, subjugated the natives of
Australia, the Aborigine people. The Aborigine, having very little technology,
were easily subdued and the land became an English colony, used at first for
its natural resources but also as a exile or prison colony. The lack of
resistance from the natives made it relatively easy for the English to
accomplish their task. This gave the Aborigine absolutely no respect from the
English, and almost to this day are they treated as inferiors, by the English.
This was not the case with the neighboring Maori's.
As stated before, the English eventually found their way to the south,
where the beautiful island lay untouched by foreign hands. They also found
that the island had a native populace just as Australia had had. But one thing
was very different from these natives. The English, thinking that this island
was also theirs for the taking, met heavy resistance from the Maori. Many an
English life was lost at the hands of these fiercesome warriors, and even
though they were outclassed technologically, still did the Maori fight on.
Their persistance and desire to defend their land from the invading outsiders
won them the respect and admiration of the English. Presently, they hold
positions of power in the New Zealand parliament and are regarded as equals
in society.
When a Maori takes a picture for the outside world, e.g. for a post card
or tourist, their ferocity and determination are shown in their stance and
posture. They strike a fighting pose, with one arm raised above their heads in
an attack position and the other in front of them, ready to defend their
midsection. The best aspect is their facial expressions. Their tongues are out
and dipped down, while their eyes are open fully, as you might see a crazed
or intense individual do. The stance is tell outsiders that yes, we are mean and
we'll kick your --- if you come and try to take what's ours.
Because the Maori chose to fight the English, it earned them respect
and admiration. They are now in control of their own destiny and have been
since the English came. They send a message out with each and every
postcard, and although the stance has now become more of a show than
reality. its message can still remind us of determination of one tribe of people.

The Industrial HeartlandMegalopolis

The Industrial Heartland--Megalopolis
There are basically seven factors that must be met before an industry can start to take
place in a particular area. Those seven factors are: raw materials, transportation, energy, markets,
labour, capital, and government. The Industrial Heartland is almost like one big industry,
connected in a vast megalopolis. I'll be taking a closer look at these factors and the way this area
meets the locational factors.

The Industrial Heartland is an area that includes: Quebec, Ontario, Michigan, Illinois,
Indiana, Connecticut, Wisconsin, Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York, Maryland, Washington DC,
West Virginia, Virginia, Kentucky, Delaware, New Jersey, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, New
Hampshire, and Vermont.

Raw Materials(ex. iron ore, coal, limestone etc.) is an unprocessed material used as the
base for primary industry. The Industrial Heartland has many different mining sites throughout it.
(ex-the nickel mine in Ontario, mines in Pittsburgh, Gary, Baltimore, Hamilton, Sault Ste.

Transportation is extremely important in this area. Most mines and mills are located by
waterways to make transportation readily available for it's transport's. Coal, limestone, and
many other kinds of mines use the Great Lakes to transport, which happens to be in the middle of
the Industrial Heartland. They usually have tons of material to move so water transportation can
carry lots of material, it's cheap, but it's also slow. Another important route in this region is the
St. Lawrence Seaway, which was an significant factor in the decision of industries to locate in this
region. Other main waterways in this region are: Ohio River, Mississippi River, New York State
Barge Canal System, New York Harbour, Philadelphia Harbour, and Baltimore Harbour.

There is also Railway to consider for transportation. They can almost go anywhere in this
region, but they are more expensive than Waterway transport, and not as adaptable as trucks.

Truck hauling is considered the best for most of the transport. Though the cost of fuel has
increased over the years, trucks are still the main carrier of cargo.

Energy, is one of the most, if not the most important factor for industries. Every industry
needs power, energy. Some sources of energy are: Hydroelectricity, Thermal electric, natural gas,
and coal.

Hydroelectricity is a good choice for energy for home requirements, but for industry,
they need tremendous amounts of energy. To meet the requirements of an industries power, the
industry would have to locate near the hydroelectric plant, and there is just simply not enough
hydroelectric sites.

Thermal electricity is a commonly used power source for industry. It's convenient for the

Markets refer to trade, selling of goods to consumers. The Industrial Heartland offers
many places for markets, as it has a large population, therefore, demand. So, an industry close
to the demand wouldn't have to transport that much. Usually if their is high request for an item,
the manufacturer would set prices higher to grasp extra transportation costs.

Labour-The Industrial Heartland would be an ideal place to locate, as it has a very high
population, thus having many people, and workers looking for jobs. Many people live,
locate to the Industrial Heartland to find jobs. There is a widespread of jobs in the industrial
heartland-many different occupations are found there.

Capital is the cash flow, equipment, and buildings of/needed by a certain industry.
Obviously, to set up an industry you need a capital. It's like the starting money of the
business/industry. Stocks are usually bought by consumers, so an industry can raise it's capital
(stock-share in a company). Bond issues and bank loans are just some of the other ways
industries start up.

Government-Municipal, provincial, and federal government are concerned with the
industry. Government encourages industry, for the growth of the region. The job of each part of
the government is as follows: municipal-choose land for the industry(make sure it's suitable),
provide sewers, roads, electrical lines, schools, health care, and police protection. Provincial-sets
rules/regulations, so on, for the industry to obide by. Provide energy, employee-training, enforce
labour laws, safety standards, & working conditions. Federal-provides carriage and
facilities-finances the construction of highways, harbours and airports, and enforces tariff.

The Industrial Heartland meets all it's locational factors, and provides many jobs for people in the
region. I think transportation, markets, and population of this region has greatly contributed to
the amount of industry within it.

the forever shifting earth

The land below us is always in motion. Plate tectonics studies these restless effects to give us a better understanding of the Earth and its past. New molten rocks are poured out in the form of magma from the mid-ocean ridges. The rock is recycled and re-entered back into the earth in deep ocean trenches through convection current. The convection current in the mantle drives plates around either against or away from each other. These collisions give rise to earthquakes, volcanoes, mountains, and continental drift. The crashing and spreading of the plates forms the landscape of the Earth as we see it today. The positions of the land masses today is a result of continental drift. During the Earth's existance, the magnetic fields have never been stable. Solidified magma containing magnetic imprints reveal periods of time when the Earth's magnetic fields have actually been reversed.
Approximately 4.55 billion years ago, the Earth was just a ball of molten material. Since then, parts of the Earth have cooled forming the solid crust-mantle. This process has been occurring for roughly about 3.8 billion years. The mantle is about 2900 km. thick, which lies above a layer of molten magma that still exists today. The immense heat from the magma (approximately 2700(C) causes convection in the mantle (Figure 1). Convection is caused by non-uniform temperature in a fluid and density differences. This continuous convection is the cause of plate movement. Each complete cycle, called a convection cell, drives the plate in the direction of the cell. How does a 'solid' mantle move? The mantle may be solid but, as with most solids, it will deform if long term stress is applied; " Silly Putty which seeps into the rug when left unattended, mantle material flows when subjected to small long-term stresses."1
Presently, there are more than fourteen plates in the Earth's crust (Figure 22). Upwelling hot magma flows out from mid-ocean ridges and then cools down when exposed to the cooled environment outside; the layer of cooled magma forms the lithosphere. When magma flows out from the ridges, the crust is fractured and a new ocean floor is built spreading perpendicularly away from the ridge. Because of this constant upwelling, the ocean is relatively shallow in these areas. Sea floor spreading and continental drift are the products of this continual upwelling. The cooled magma will, in time, sink back down into the Earth in the deep ocean trenches. The mantle sinking down produces subduction zones or Benioff zones. The deepest part of the ocean resides in these areas. There are three types of boundaries where plates meet: divergent boundaries -- the upwelling of magma; convergent boundaries where the plates collide producing mountains, volcanoes, and earthquakes; and transform boundaries -- lateral movement. Transform plates are caused by fracture zones. When a rift opens from the upwelling of magma it causes a crack in the crust. As new magma rises to the surface, the crack increases caused by the pressure, resulting in a horizontal faulting. The fractured plate pieces travel in the same direction as the original plate was traveling -- away from the ocean ridge.
During the early 1900's, a theory of a 'super-continent' was developed by Alfred Wegener. He was ridiculed for his ideas that continental drift produced the present positions of the continents from a single 'super-continent' called Pangea. This theory is widely accepted today, however. There was abundant evidence for Wegener to believe in the existance of Pangea. The shape of the continents could be pieced together like a giant jigsaw puzzle suggesting that the continents were once 'glued' together. The fossils found on the continents were not distinct to that particular land, but were also found in lands that were separated by thousands of kilometers of water. Fossils indicated that identical species existed in different continents. Geological structures also demonstrated that the continents were, in fact, one giant land mass; old mountain ranges from one continent matched with those from another (i.e., South America and Africa).
Ocean spreading has always been moving the continents towards or away from each other. About 200 million years ago during the Jurassic period, Pangea began to separate (Figure 33). Pangea's continental crust was subjected to many faults and rifts. Hot magma would flow out, splitting the land apart and creating a rift valley. When this valley became deep enough, water flowed in. In time, the rift expanded so much that a sea began to form between thus creating two continents. About 135 million years ago, because of sea floor spreading, Pangea separated into two large land masses: Laurasia (containing North America, Europe, and Asia) to the north, and Gondwana (containing South America, Africa, Australia, Antarctica, and India) to the south. About 180 million years ago, Gondwana started to break up into South America-Africa, Australia-Antarctica, and India. About 130 million years ago, the Atlantic started separating South America and Africa while India sailed towards Asia, crashing into it about 30 million years ago. Australia and Antarctica split about 45 million years ago and North America separated from Europe 5-10 million years later.
To this day, the continents are continually moving and will still be moving until the liquid inner core cools and solidifies. With the use of a highly-accurate distance-measuring device known as a geodimeter, the speed at which the continents are moving and the speed of ocean spreading could be measured. A geodimeter uses a helium-neon laser that acts like radar to measure distances. The average speed of sea floor spreading is about 2 cm. per year. Africa, today, is traveling towards Europe and Asia, causing the Mediterranean to close in; in due time, this sea will vanish. India, which is cemented to Asia, is an example of continental collision. India's drift speed is about 17 cm. per year; this collision is shown physically by the Himalayan mountains. In the far future, North America will, most likely, be placed more the west, possibly colliding with Asia; and Australia will drift north, colliding with South Asia. Another possibility may be that, in a few hundred million years, all the continents may join together, creating another 'super-continent.'
One of the most destructive forces the plates generate are earthquakes. There are earthquakes occurring every day of different intensity and magnitude, from 500,000 per year at a Richter scale of 1, to one every few years at a Richter scale of about 8. Faults are produced when rock strata are stressed beyond their limits, forming cracks in the crust. These cracks are fault zones where crustal movement is taking place. There are three types of faults shown in Figure 4: normal, reverse, and strike slip. Normal faults, also called tension faults, move up and down, caused by two plates pulling away at divergent boundaries. These vertical movements cause one side of the land to slide downwards along a plane that is slanted. This kind of 'downward-fault' produces trench-like valleys called grabens similar to the Rhine Valley on the border of France and West Germany. Reverse faults, or compression faults, are caused by the collision of two plates at convergent boundaries. Most faults are produced by this compressional force. Like normal faults, these faults also cause vertical movements where one side is pushed upwards vertically on an inclined plane. These faults produce high vertical 'upward-fault' structures called horst.
Strike slip or transform faults are lateral movements of faults at the transformed boundaries. Strike-slip faults do not produce any cliffs but they can produce rift valleys. Tectonic forces deform the rocks on both sides of the fault. At this point, rocks are bending and storing potential energy. Finally, when the force exceeds the frictional force between the two rocks, the plates suddenly slip at the most vulnerable place. The initial slip causes more slippage along the fault which in turn causes energy to be released. The released energy produces vibrations called seismic waves which originate at the epicenter. The San Andreas Fault is a well-known example of this released energy from a transform fault. At this location, an almost straight valley is produced by the parallel fractures. The Pacific plate, in Canada, is sliding northwards and thus, in the future, California may end up where Vancouver is, today.
One of the most prominent signs that molten material resides below the crust and mantle is the display of volcanoes. Magma seeks out weak spots on the crust where it could seep out. Volcanoes are mostly present at fault lines especially at the ocean ridges where new magma is constantly being poured out. This accounts for about 81% of all magma that escapes to the surface. The other 19% rises at certain points rather than along fissures. On of the most famous examples of volcanic activity is The Ring of Fire, located around the Pacific Plate. There, a continuous 'ring' of volcanoes exists. 'Island arcs' are formed there by many volcanoes developing islands in the form of a curve. The longest island arc is the Aleutian Islands stretching more than 3000 miles from Alaska to Asia. One explanation for this arc is that the Pacific plate is rotating very slowly. The westward-moving plate moves away from the source of volcanic activity making the volcanoes arise in an arc due to the rotation of the plate.
One of the beauties plate collisions could offer are mountains. There are three types of tectonic mountains: volcanoes, block fault, and folding. One way mountains are formed are by volcanoes such as the aforementioned island arcs. In time, after numerous eruptions, more and more sediments are layered and compressed, forming mountainous islands. Block fault mountains occur when two plates collide, causing one to climb up. This is known also as a horst mentioned before. Mountains such as the Sierra Nevada Range is a large tilted fault block. Folding mountains occur when two converging plates bring two land masses together. When a continent is pushing its way towards another, the oceanic crust sinks into the subduction zone. As it moves down the zone, the sediment that makes up the crust is scraped off by the other continent. With the continental crusts pushing together, the sedimentary rocks are compressed into complex folds where the folds themselves fold as well. This process forms the high alpine mountains such as the Himalayas which were caused by India crashing into Asia.
If the mantle is always being convected back down into the depths of the Earth, then why doesn't the continents disappear in the deep ocean trenches as well? The crust contains two different crusts: the granite continental crust and the basaltic oceanic crust. Only the basaltic crust is thrust back into the Earth while the granite crust floats on top of it. This is due to the difference in densities. The granite crust is less dense (2.7 g/cm3) and thicker than the basaltic crust (2.8 g/cm3) making it seem as if the land is actually floating, instead of one big solid mass that extends down to the Earth. Using Broecker analogy:
"...swimming pool with 4 x 4 hardwood beams and part with 8 x 8 softwood beams. The softwood beams would float higher for two reasons: they are thicker and they are less dense."4
As new crust is formed from upwelling magma, the ocean floor spreads away from the source. Because molten magma contains metallic substances such as iron, the cooled rock will possess a magnetic field parallel to the direction of the Earth's field. The magnetic imprint occurs when certain substances cool after intense heating within a magnetic field. The rock cools to the temperature when the magnetic field of the rock becomes permanent; this is called the Curie temperature. During the history of the Earth, this 'normal' magnetic field (North pole to true North) has not been constant. Over the past 110 million years, the Earth's magnetic field has reversed about 80 times with North becoming South and vice versa. Figure 55 shows the chronological reversals of Earth's magnetic field over the past 4.5 million years. The last major reversal was approximately 700,000 years ago called the Brunhes Epoch. These magnetic reversals are symmetrical to either side of the ridge. The reversals are also random with no determined period of time.
Radioactive dating along with magnetic reversals provides a means to record the speed at which the ocean floor is spreading. The youngest crust is where the magma flows out from the ridges and the oldest being where the crust flows back in the trenches. Figure 66 shows the age of the oceanic crust. Deep sea drilling and the art of radioactive dating could tell us when the magnetic field was reversed. Ships equipped with hollow drills would obtain samples of the ocean floor from various places around the ridge. The procedure most widely used to date the ocean floor is the Potassium-Argon dating method. It relies on any present radioactive material, Potassium-40. Potassium-40 decays slowly (1250 x 106 years) but not as slow as Uranium, which decays too slowly for this purpose and Carbon, which decays too fast. Potassium-40 decays into Argon-40 and Calcium-40. By measuring the amount of decay, the age of the ocean floor can be determined. Knowing the time and distance, the velocity of the ocean floor spreading can then be determined. It takes about 50 to 150 million years for the crust to travel from its origin to where it will circulate back below. The crust is relatively new because it is always being renewed.
Using the magnetic orientation of rocks, more evidence could be deduced that backs of the theory of Pangea: " is possible, using simple trigonometry, to determine the latitude at which the rock was formed and the past orientation of the continent upon which it lay."7 This practice is called paleomagnetism. The readings can give the position of the magnetic North pole in any time period. If the readings from a single continent is plotted, a smooth curve called the polar wander curve, could be attained. The plot shows the curve leading away from the present pole. This is only possible if either the magnetic pole moved or the continent moved. When readings were calculated for other continents, the curves did not converge at a point. This means that there was only one magnetic North pole at any one time and indicated that the continents moved in respect to each other.
Magnetic reversals are still a mystery, but many suggested hypothesis exists. One reason was that collisions with meteorites or comets may have caused the reversals. In fact, there was recent evidence that the Earth in fact, collided with a huge meteor. This hypothesis corresponded to the periods of mass extinctions; "...of the eight species that vanished from the cores during the 2.5 million years for which the record was most complete, six disappeared close to the time of a reversal, as recorded in the magnetic particles of the same core."8 Tektites, glassy fragments from meteorites containing large amounts of iron and magnesium were scattered over large sections of the Earth which corresponded to the last major reversal. The meteorites provided some proof to this hypothesis. This theory is just one of the many scientists have come up with. Others believed that the anomalies were formed by the compression of rocks -- the same kind of compression that existed during mountain building.
The drifting of plates could cause devastation or wonder. Convection cells that propel the plates produces Earth's surface dynamics. Murderous earthquakes and violent storms of volcanoes are a result from these ever-dynamic floating plates. Earth's crust juts out as high as the sky along with the deep valleys that are being produced from the crashing and spreading of these plates. Upwelling of hot magma separates the land and continents similar to the separation of Pangea, but in time the continents will meet yet again to form another 'super-continent.' The ever new sea floor containing magnetic 'footprints' shows us of a time of magnetic field reversals. These reversals could explain continental drift and its velocity. There has been extensive study in tectonic plates, but there are still unsolved mysteries for one to discover.


1. Wallace S. Broecker, How to Build a Habitable Planet. (Palisades, New York: Eldigio Press, 1985), p. 147.

2. Robert W. Christopherson, Geosystems. 2nd. ed. (New York: MacMillan College Publishing Company, 1994), p. 341.

3. Ibid., p. 336-337.

4. Wallace S. Broecker, How to Build a Habitable Planet. (Palisades, New York: Eldigio Press, 1985), p. 155-156.

5. Walter Sullivan, Continents in Motion. 2nd. ed. (New York: McGraw Hill Book Company, 1991), p. 97.

6. Wallace S. Broecker, How to Build a Habitable Planet. (Palisades, New York: Eldigio Press, 1985), p. 159.

7. Peter J. Smith, The Earth. (New York: MacMillan Publishing Company, 1986), p. 13.

8. Waltus Sullivan, Continents in Motion. 2nd. ed. (New York: McGraw Hill Book Company, 1991), p. 96.


Bird, John M. and Isacks, Bryan, ed., Plate Tectonics. Washington American Geophysical Union, 1972.

Broecker, Wallace S. How to Build a Habitable Planet. Palisades, New York: Eldigio Press, 1985.

Christopherson, Robert W. Geosystems. 2nd. ed. New York: MacMillan College Publishing Company, 1994.

Erickson, Jon Volcanoes and Earthquakes. Blue Ridge Summit: Tab Books Inc., 1988.

Smith, Peter J. The Earth. New York: MacMillan Publishing Company, 1986.

Sullivan, Walter Continents in Motion. 2nd. ed. New York: McGraw Hill Book Company, 1992.

The Egnigma Of Atlantis

The Enigma of Atlantis
I believe that there never was an island known as Atlantis. If the people
of Atlantis made war against other countries to find wealth and power, don't
you think that anybody would know of the wars that went on? Even though
the people of the ancient items didn't usually record events in history, have
you ever heard of passing it on from generation to generation?
Have gods ever laid before such cruel punishment on any civilization
like Plato claims was laid on Atlantis? To say that there was terrible heat,
then tidal waves, and earthquakes during a twenty four hour period of time is
unheard of.
Atlantis is just an island of the Greek Myths and that's all the island of
Atlantis is a myth. The idea that an island almost half the Atlantic Ocean
away (Thera) could be Atlantis is insane. According to what Plato said the
island Thera was supposed to be west of the pillars of Hercules, (the pillars of
Hercules is the name the Greeks gave to the straight of Gibraltar) and Thera
is an island around Greece east of the Pillars of Hercules. The island of
Atlantis couldn't have been so wealthy or other greedy kings and queens
would have searched for the riches themselves.
I truly believe that there never was an Atlantis and future scientists will
prove my theory.

The Colorado River

Colorado River

Geographers can tell you that the one thing that most rivers and their
adjacent flood plains in the world have in common is that they have rich
histories associated with human settlement and development. This
especially true in arid regions which are very dependent upon water. Two
excellent examples are the Nile and the Tigris-Euphrates rivers which
show use the relationship between rivers and concentrations of people.
However, the Colorado River is not such a good example along most
segments of its course. There is no continuous transportation system
that parallels the rivers course, and settlements are clustered. The
rugged terrain and entrenched river channels are the major reasons for
sparse human settlement. We ask ourselves, did the Colorado River help
or hinder settlement in the Western United States?
As settlers began to move westward, the Southwest was considered
to be a place to avoid. Few considered it a place to traverse, to spread
Christianity, and a possible source of furs or mineral wealth. Finding a
reliable or accessible water source, and timber for building was
difficult to find. There was a lack of land that could be irrigated
By the turn of the century, most present day cities and towns
were already established. Trails, roads, and railroads linked several
areas with neighboring regions. Although the Colorado River drainage
system was still not integrated. In the mid 1900's many dams had been
built to harness and use the water. A new phase of development occurred
at the end of the second World War. There was a large emphasis on
recreation, tourism, and environmental preservation.
The terrain of the Colorado River is very unique. It consists of
Wet Upper Slopes, Irregular Transition Plains and Hills, Deep
Canyonlands, and the Dry Lower Plains.
Wet Upper Slopes: Consist of numerous streams that feed into the
Colorado River from stream cut canyons, small flat floored valleys often
occupied by alpine lakes and adjacent steep walled mountain peaks. These
areas are heavily forested and contain swiftly flowing streams, rapids,
and waterfalls. These areas have little commercial value except as
watershed, wildlife habitat, forest land, and destinations for hikers,
fishermen, and mountaineers.
Irregular Transition Plains and Hills: These areas are favorable
for traditional economic development. It consists of river valleys with
adequate flat land to support farms and ranches. Due to the rolling
hills, low plateaus, and mountain slopes, livestock grazing is common.
The largest cities of the whole drainage system are found here.
Deep Canyonlands: Definitely the most spectacular and least
developed area along the Colorado River. These deep gorges are primarily
covered by horizontal layers of sedimentary rocks, of which sand stone is
the most abundant. The Grand Canyon does not only display spectacular
beauty, but numerous other features such as mesas, buttes, spires,
balancing rocks, natural arches and bridges, sand dunes, massive
sandstone walls, and pottholed cliffs.
Dry Lower Plains: These consist of the arid desert areas. These
areas encounter hot summers and mild winters. Early settlement was
limited because most of the land next to the river was not well suited
for irrigation agriculture. The area is characterized by limited flat
land, poor soils, poor drainage, and too hot of conditions for most
traditional crops.
The Colorado River was first navigated by John Wesley Powell,
in his 1869 exploration through the Marble and Grand Canyons. The
Colorado River begins high in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. The water
begins from melting snow and rain, and is then supplemented by the
Gunnison, Green, San Juan, Little Colorado, Virgin, and Gila Rivers.
Before any dams were built, the Colorado River carried 380,000 million
tons of silt to the Sea of Cortez. Along it's path, it carves out the
Marble, Grand, Black, Boulder, and Topok Canyons. The Grand Canyon being
the most popular, which is visited by numerous tourists every year, plays
a large role in western tourism. The Grand Canyon is in fact one of the
World's Seven Wonders. The Colorado Basin covers 240,000 square miles of
drainage area. At certain points along the river, it turns into a
raging, muddy, rapid covered mass of water. Unlike other rivers, the
Colorado River doesn't meet the ocean in a grand way, but rather in a
small trickle. Almost all of the water that passes down the river is
spoken for. It passes through seven Western States, travels 1,700 miles,
and descends more than 14,000 feet before emptying into the sea, with
more silt and salinity than any river in North America. A river not used
for commerce, or any degree of navigation other than recreational, and
virtually ignored until the turn of the century.
The Colorado River is the most fought over, litigated, and
legislated river in the United States. The upper Colorado passes through
mountainous, less populated country. It has seen fewer problems that the
lower Colorado. The lower Colorado, which passes through canyons and
arid desert, serves a more populated area. It has been a large source of
arguments for the state of California and surrounding areas since the
early 1900's.
The first project on the Colorado River was the Alamo River
Project near Yuma, Arizona. Sediment from the upper river was
transported and deposited down river. It raised the river bed so the
river was higher than the surrounding land, making water easy to divert
for irrigation. The Alamo Canal diverted water from the Colorado River
to the Alamo River, and traveled 60 miles through Mexico across the
Mexicali desert to the Salton Sink, a depression in the Imperial Valley.
For this, Mexico received the right to take half the water from the
canal, the rest went to the Imperial Valley. Although it may have seemed
like an easy way to divert the water, the Alamo Canal was no match for
the untamed Colorado River. In 1905 a series of floods breached the
intake and flooded the Imperial Valley, settling in the Salton Sea.
After tremendous amounts of manpower and money, the river was returned to
its original path.
This disaster alarmed the landowners of the valley. The
Imperial Irrigation District of Southern California was the largest
single user of Colorado River water. They campaigned for an All-American
Canal. One that would divert the river above the Mexican border and
leave the Mexicali desert with what they didn't use. This was met with
much opposition from the largest landowner in the Mexican desert, a
syndicate of wealthy Los Angeles businessmen, headed by Harry Chandler of
the Los Angeles Times.
The Imperial Valley landowners received support from the City of
Los Angeles. The city was growing rapidly and the need for future
electric power was a major concern. Water experts advocated a dam on the
Colorado. Without this dam, the All-American Canal would be in danger of
breaching and flooding. The two forces combined to work for a Dam in
Boulder Canyon on the Colorado River.
In Salt Lake City in January 1919, representatives from the seven
states that have tributaries emptying into the Colorado River met. "The
water should first be captured and used while it is young, for then it
can be recaptured as it returns from the performance of its duties and
thus be used over and over again ".(1)
On Nov. 24, 1922, the seven states signed the Colorado River
Compact. This pact divided the waters into 2 basin areas, separated at
Lee's Ferry, at the head of the Grand Canyon. The Upper states included
Colorado, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming. The Lower states included
Arizona, California and Nevada. Each area received 7.5 million acre
feet of water, with the lower basin getting an extra 1 million acre feet
annually from its tributaries. The allocation of river water was based
on an annual flow at Lee's Ferry of 16.5 million acre feet. This was
later found to be inaccurate and did not take into account the rivers dry
years. A more accurate flow is 13.5 million acre feet per year. In
addition, any water given to Mexico by international treaty would be
supplied first from the surplus above the total of 16 million acre feet,
and if this was not sufficient, the deficiency would be shared equally by
the two basins. The consensus was that the river and its tributaries
were American (244,000 sq. miles) originating in the United States, very
little of the Colorado River was in Mexico (2,000 sq. miles), and
therefore they deserved very little. Herbert Hoover stated, "We do not
believe they (Mexicans) ever had any rights." The Indian tribes along
the river were treated the same way. Hoover inserted what was called the
'Wild Indian Article', "nothing in this compact shall be construed as
affecting the obligations of the United States of America to Indian
tribes." (2) It's obvious that the native Mexicans and Indians were
being deprived of what originally belonged to them. The attitude of
Herbert Hoover left the local peoples with a taste of resentment.
The Colorado River Pact did not apportion water to individual
states. Arizona would not ratify the pact, feeling that California was
taking all the water given to the lower basin. Arizona contributed 3
major rivers, about 2 to 3 million acre feet, to the Colorado.
California farmers would be the largest single users of the water, but
would contribute nothing. California finally agreed to some concessions.
All the waters of the Gila River in Arizona would go to Arizona, and be
exempted from the Mexican Treaty. California also agreed to apportion
0.3 million acre feet of water to Nevada, 4.4 million acre feet and 1/2
of the surplus to California, 2.8 million acre feet to Arizona and the
other 1/2 of the surplus. Arizona was still not satisfied. The argument
went on for years, with Congress finally passing the Boulder Canyon Act
in 1928 without Arizona's ratification.
The Boulder Canyon Act of 1928 authorized the construction of a
hydro-electric plant at Black Canyon. The cost to be off-set by the
selling of electric power over a total of 50 years. All power privileges
at the dam were to be controlled by private interest. The Metropolitan
Water District controlled 36%, City of LA 19%, Arizona 18%, and Nevada
18%. The act also included the construction of the All-American Canal,
starting at Laguna Dam and crossing 75 miles of Imperial Valley to the
Salton Sea.
Arizona's share of the water made it possible for large
population increases in Phoenix and Tucson, two desert regions that would
not be able to exist with out the Colorado River. Population increases
in Phoenix and Tucson were using much of the state's water. Arizona
wanted more water from the Colorado River, they continued to fight
California for it. In 1930 Arizona filed what was to be many lawsuits
against the State of California for more water rights. It wasn't until
Arizona was granted electricity from Hoover Dam, and given assurances for
the Central Arizona Project, that Arizona ratified the 1922 Colorado
River Compact, 22 years later. Nevada, the one state that has no major
river, was largely unpopulated at this time and remained unconcerned
about the water allocation.
During this time, The Federal Bureau of Reclamation built Davis
Dam, 66 miles below Hoover Dam to further regulate flows and provide
storage. Parker Dam, below Davis was built in 1934 to facilitate the 242
mile long Colorado River Aqueduct. This was another of Metropolitan
Water District's projects to transport water to Los Angeles. With Hoover
and Parker, California could receive 5.6 million acre feet from the
Colorado River.
Mexico saw its share of the river water drying up with the
control of the water at Hoover Dam. In 1944 the United States, wanting
to continue a good relationship with her neighbor, signed an agreement
with Mexico giving them 1.5 million acre feet per year, with nothing said
about the quality of the water. Mexico water, due to return irrigation
water from United States fields and evaporation was increasingly saline.
Additional water to flush the salts was tried, but the condition
worsened. By 1955, the Mexicali Valley was a leading cotton producing
region. By 1960, growing salinity of river water hurt the cotton crop
along with the decline in cotton prices. Mexico and the United States
argued over the quality of water, and due to the administration's "Good
Neighbor Policy", the United States acquiesced, and in 1973 signed a
water agreement with Mexico. United States reduced salt by releasing
more water upstream, the quality of water arriving at Morelos Dam was to
be equal in quality to water behind Imperial Dam. The silt was to be
removed by the giant desilting works at Imperial Dam, and then the water
was returned to the river above Morelos Dam at the Imperial Irrigation
District Pilot Knob power drop.
This policy promised Mexico that salinity levels would be no more than
115 parts per million. It also obligated the United States to assume all
costs necessary to meet the salinity levels. As a result, the United
States agreed to upstream salt control projects in Nevada, Utah, and
Colorado, and a 260 Million dollar desalination plant in Yuma, Arizona.
The desalination plant reclaims more than 70 million gallons of drainage
water a day from the Welton-Mohawk irrigation project. Fifty miles from
the Mexican border is Laguna Salada, the end of the Colorado River. An
unlined canal carries the water 50 miles and then empties it onto the
flat plain of sand and silt where the Sea of Cortez washes the last drops
into the gulf. The Mexican water irrigates soil for 14,000 farmers and
supplies drinking water for the Mexicali Valley. A 76 mile aqueduct
provides water for Tijuana, Mexico.
It was not until 1964 that Arizona finally got their share of the
water with the passage of the Central Arizona Project. The Central
Arizona Project was the culmination of years of litigation. The 3.5
million dollar project pumps water from Lake Havasu, 824 feet up and over
the Buckskin Mountains through a 7 mile tunnel along a concrete aqueduct
333 miles to the cities of Phoenix and Tucson. The Central Arizona
Project was built by the Bureau of Reclamation and finished in 1991.
In 1963 in Arizona vs. California, the Supreme Court allocated
900,000 acre feet of Colorado River water to 5 Indian tribes along the
river, and 79,000 acre feet for federal lands. This gives them
sufficient water to meet needs of reservation. Recently the tribes have
reasoned that farm lands were omitted from the original estimate and that
they want more water rights. If tribes receive more water, this could
mean less water for the lower basin. Opponents argue that the Navajo
Tribe bargained away some rights for other developments, such as the huge
coal burning power plant on Lake Powell. The Federal Governments
outlook is, "why give the tribes more water?" They gave away their
rights, and the Federal government does not have the money for water
irrigation projects that would benefit so few people. There is another
side to the Indian issue, "first in time, first in right". this means
that the Indians were there first, before the laws, so therefore the
Indians have first right to the water. This would put a totally
different slant on distribution of Colorado River water, but most people
feel that this issue would be tied up in litigation for years, and
because of the benefits of so few, the Indians would likely lose.
Citizens groups have become more vocal in the management of the
lower Colorado River Basin. The river water has historically been given
to agricultural uses. In recent times, urban sprawl has infringed on the
agriculture, 80% of the Colorado river water is still used for crops, but
scarcity and expensive water is limiting the agriculture. The Imperial
Valley Irrigation district wastes about 15% of its water. Conservation
has led to the lining of canals with cement. This had brought about
charges that it prevents seepage from filling ground water aquifers.
Water experts fear that depleting local water supplies will empty
underground reservoirs, so they want more water from the Colorado.
Maintaining stream flow of tributaries is necessary for preserving
habitat and underground aquifers.
Infrared satellite photos which pick up plant growth as red, show the
area of the Colorado Delta in Mexico, the Mexicali, and San Louis Valley
as desolate, with few pale red patches, but the area of the canals in
the Imperial Valley show vibrant red.
The growing population explosion in the southwest have given the
municipalities a loud voice in the fight for more water, but most of the
laws still favor agriculture. Agriculture produces economic advantages,
government subsidies and facilities. The Clean Water Act sets effluent
standards for water coming from 'point sources' (pipes and ditches), but
agricultural return flow is exempt. In 1980, the State of Arizona passed
the most stringent water management program. This law discourages
farmers from using Central Arizona Project (CAP) water to increase
production of heavy water user crops such as cotton, rice and citrus, by
having growers cut back on ground water use equal to their use of CAP
water. The farmers can also sell their water rights to developers and
local water systems.
The City of Tucson is perhaps the most water conscience city in America.
They have mandatory conservation, all golf courses and city parks use
reclaimed water, or water that has been recycled. They ban outdoor
fountains and utilize low flow toilets and showers. The city has cut
their water consumption 25% since 1974. Sadly, most of the west has not
practiced water conservation. The recent six year drought in Southern
California, when many of the cities were required to conserve water, and
some even had water patrols to cite people for wasting water, forced
people to conserve water or face stiff penalties. For years California
had 'borrowed' water from the upper basin and used Arizona and New
Mexico's unused portion of lower basin water. The water supply of the
lower Colorado Rive Basin had, for the first time, used up its entire
share of river water. This meant severe conservation of water. By 1990,
after heavy rains in Arizona, California was again using other states
water. People went back to their old habits of wasting precious water.
Many people felt that because conservationists are always crying about
water shortages, they have cried wolf too often, they don 't believe
there is a water shortage, that it is only an excuse for raising water
rates. On April 1, 1994, California State water officials said that
California is again in a drought. Many people will ignore this in view
of recent heavy rains. People have to understand that the water is only
transported to Southern California. If there is no rain or snow in
Colorado (or the Sierra's in California's case) it can result in water
A threat of water allocation is a threat to a person or a communities way
of life. New growth actually encourages more water consumption. New
houses mean more dish washers, washing machines and backyard pools. This
is not the way to manage water. A conscientious effort must be made by
government, and residents to share the water equally and conserve water
In 1980 legislature authorized the transfer of water rights, or water
marketing. Some people believed this would lead to an open market, the
price of the water would reflect the cost of developing and distributing
the water. The highest bidder would receive the water. In theory, the
more the water costs, the more people would conserve. But agriculture is
heavily subsidized and therefore prices can fluctuate. Commercial and
residential users would be subject to high water rates, with the wealthy
being able to afford most of the water. This is an unfair and unjust
system. A marketing system that is fair and responsible, one that
mandates conservation, should be enacted. Water needs to be dispersed
equally. The 1922 compact, while good in its time, is antiquated by
today's standards and usage. "The politics of the Colorado River Basin
is nothing more than a fabric of promise, incurred at different times,
under different conditions and often for different purposes'. (3)
The Colorado River could in the future be augmented by other water. Some
have suggested connecting the Columbia River to the Colorado by way of
pumps, siphons and canals. These plans are very costly and unless water
becomes scarce, this is not a reality. Some California coastal cities
have made plans for alternate water in times of shortage. Ocean water
desalination plants are in the planning stages or under construction.
This method of water augmentation is also very costly.
Water is a social good, a public trust, should communities be able to
decide independently about water use? The seven states of the Colorado
River Basin should follow the advice of Secretary of the Interior Bruce
Babbitt and form a commission, along with representatives of the Federal
Government with input from the Colorado River Indian Tribes, to regulate,
manage, control, enforce and educate the public and private sectors
regarding the Colorado River Water. Too many agencies, too many private
water companies all add to the confusion of the water rights of the
Colorado River. Water banks need to be set up. Lake Mead is designated
as a water bank for storage if all parties agree to this, but with the
history of regulations regarding Colorado River water, there will most
likely be a long and drawn out battle over this idea. Only the fear of
no water or a severe drought seems to move passage on laws regarding the
People come to the Colorado River to play and enjoy the water. "Six
national parks and recreation areas along the Colorado's shores support a
multi-million dollar recreation industry of boating, hiking, fishing and
white water rafting". (4). Recreation has become a huge part of the
Colorado River System. This has brought loud cries from the
conservationists. In 1991 the Arizona stretch of the Colorado River was
named the most endangered river of 1991 by American Rivers, a
conservation group. Many of the fish and wildlife have disappeared.
Special areas have been designated as wildlife protection areas. The
Endangered Species Act protects the river and can be enacted
independently of the Clean Water Act. Federal Fish and Game, state
resources and conservation groups have all worked to make the public

The Chisholm Trail

Chisholm Trail

When the railroads moved west to the Great Plains, the "Cattle Boom" began. Southern Texas became a major ranching area with the raising of longhorn cattle from Mexico. Cattle was branded by the rawhides who guarded them on horseback on the ranges.

Before the Civil War, small herds of Texas cattle were driven by the cowboys to New Orleans, some as far west as California, and some to the north over the Shawnee Trail. This trail passed through Dallas and near the Indian Territory, ending in Sedalia, Missouri. In 1866, the Shawnee Trail presented some major problems for the cattle drivers Farmers along the route did not like their fields being trampled. They also objected to the spread of tick fever. Longhorns carried the ticks but were immune to the fever. A few farmers were so angry, they armed themselves with shotguns to convince the cattle ranchers to find another trail north.

There was a large increase icattle by the end of the Civil War. Over 1,000,000 cattle roamed the open range. At this time, people in the north had money to buy beef and cattle which was in great demand. A cow that cost 4 to5 dollars a head in Texas was going for 40 to 50 dollars a head in the east. Ranchers hired cowboys for the cattle drives north, realizing the great opportunity for a large profit if they could reach the railroads in Abilene, Kansas.

Joseph McCoy, a stock dealer from Springfield, Illinois, decided a new trail was necessary west of the farms. In 1867, he chose a route that would reach Abilene and the railroads with the least amount of problems. This route was to become well-known as the Chisholm Trail.

Jesse Chisholm was a half-breed, a Scotch Cherokee Indian trader, who in 1866 drove a wagon through the Indian territory, known now as Oklahoma, to the Wichita, Kansas, where he had a trading post. Cattlemen use the same trail in the years to come, following Chisholm's wagon ruts to Abilene, Kansas, and the railroads. The trail began below San Antonio, Texas, and stretched north for about 1,000 miles. The main course then passed through Austin, Fort Worth, The Indian Territory, and Wichita to Abilene. Side trails fed into the Chisholm Trail. The cattle fed on grass along the trail.

Cattlemen moved about 1,500,000 cattle over the trail during a three year span. The biggest year was in 1871, when 5,000 cowboys drove over 700,000 head of cattle along the trail from Texas to Abilene. The Chisholm Trail was the most popular route because of the good terrain. There were no hills or woods to impede to cowboys' progress, nor where there towns or farmers along the way.

The cattle trail route moved westward as the railroads across the plains moved west, and settlers soon followed. Ellsworth and Newton, Kansas, on the Atchison, Topeka and the Santa Fe Railroad became the end of the trail for cattle drives between 1872 and 1875. Here were the chief cattle markets for several years. There "cowtowns," as they were called, consisted of gambling halls, saloons and brothels. It was a good place for cowboys to spend there pay at the end of a long drive.

In time the railroad moved even further west. Farmers homesteaded the land and put up fences, barring cattle herds. The Chisholm Trail soon ceased to be used by 1890, but will be remembered in western stories and songs. This trail was very important to Texas. It helped the state recover from the economic blows of the Civil War. It also helped stock new ranches to the north and it met the nations demand for beef. It is responsible in part for the rise of Chicago and Kansas as packing centers. It also led to the expansion of western railroads and the development of refrigerator cars.

Although Jesse Chisholm's role in the "Cattle Boom" is very insignificant, the trail named for him played a major role in American History.

The Arctic Tundra

The Tundra is located in the northern regions of North America, Europe, Asia, as well as a few regions of Antarctica. The Tundra is the second largest vegetation zone in Canada. It can be divided clearly into three different sections: the High Arctic Tundra, the Low Arctic Tundra and the Alpine Tundra. The latter Alpine Tundra occurs in higher altitudes such as mountains whereas the first two are mainly based in plains and lowlands of some kind. The Low Arctic Tundra is the transmission point to the north. It is located above Canada's Boreal forests and is followed by the High Arctic Tundra. The High Arctic Tundra is located farther north and encompasses the Arctic circle as well as most of the western Northwest Territories. Generally though since climate more or less corresponds to vegetation zones, the Tundra is located in Arctic climate areas.

The Tundra suffers a very harsh climate. Because of this fact most of the area remains barren save for a few shrubs and lichens. It's winters last from 8-10 months and the summers are cool and short. Also due to the fact that much of it's territory is located within the northern pole a lot of the Tundra receives alternating 6 month periods of light and dark. This is also the reason why the Tundra receives cold weather; at it's degree of latitude the suns rays end up hitting the region obliquely, thus causing less solar heat. Here are the temperatures of the Tundra in general:
Average January temperature: -32.1 degrees Celsius
Average July temperature: +4.1 degrees Celsius
Temperature range: 36.2 degrees Celsius
Average annual temperature: -17 degrees Celsius
Lowest temperature recorded: -52.5 degrees Celsius
Highest temperature recorded: +18.3 degrees Celsius
After seeing these temperatures you can see the reason why barely anyone lives up there and why there is rather little natural vegetation.

Seasons And Moisture Content
The main seasons of the Tundra are summer and winter. The winter will last 8 to 10 months followed by the short and much less cold summer. During the summer some lower areas of the Tundra will defrost at which point most of the flora and fauna will start to creep out of hiding. The few summer months are used by many animals such as the polar bear, to mate and to prepare for the once again oncoming winter. During the winter months most everything remains frozen. Many of the animals migrate south for the winter whereas some stay behind or even group together for ritual group suicide (lemmings).
There is little precipitation all year long in the Tundra. The average yearly total is 136 mm, out of which 83.3 mm is snow. This low amount is due to the fact that there is very little evaporation. Since the average temperature is below freezing, it give little or no time for any of the snow and/or ice to melt. This is the reason that the Tundra is often referred to as a polar desert.

The Tundra's fertility is very low. It has An average growing season of about 60 days (1.5 to 3.5 months) which is not really enough time to allow anything to grow. This is also compounded with the fact that the soil is mainly thin and rocky. But, the main problem is that most of the ground in the Tundra region is permafrost (soil which stays frozen perennially). These 3 aspects of Tundra fertility make the Tundra all but useless for use to grow anything of value.
Forest Floor
The Tundra forest floor really depends on where you are. The further north that you go the less there is anything but snow, ice, and rocks. In the more temperate Tundra where there is plant life one could find more interesting floors. They contain once again mainly rocky soil which is most likely permafrost. Also there are many different kinds of mosses and lichens scattered along the ground or on bigger rocks along with possibly some short grasses.

Diversity of Plants
There are not very many species of plant life in the Arctic Tundra, nor is their growth rate giant or are they abundant but somehow they do survive. Most of the plant life occurs in the lower areas of the Tundra although there are sometimes a few "pockets" of vegetation as you move further north. There is also a bit more vegetation in the Alpine Tundra. During the few short summer months, the vegetation is able to grow, as opposed to winter where only a few cold resistant trees can survive the harsh climate and temperatures. The plants reproduce by division and by budding rather than by pollination since there is little time and little other plants.
The Vegetation is often divided into two distinct regions. The change from one to another is quite surprising. They are:
The low arctic Tundra which supports a nearly complete plant coverage. There are many low and dwarf shrubs which include willow, birch, and Heath. There is a large quantity of mosses and lichens in this area.
The high arctic Tundra is a place where it is obviously much more difficult to locate as many plants. Once again mosses and lichens are found but in smaller proportions. Scattered "patches" of willow and sedge occur as well.
Diversity of Animals
Even though the arctic Tundra is not seeping with wildlife, there are more than a few different kinds of animals. The arctic Tundra wildlife is closely related all around the world, but the variety is limited because of the difficult environment that they have to adjust to. There are of course the large herbivores, which include such species as the caribou, the musk-ox , and the reindeer. These eat the mosses and dwarf shrubs which they may come across as they cross the arctic. As for predators, they include the wolf and the arctic fox. These play a most crucial role in the Tundra by killing and eating several herbivores. Without this service the herbivores would eat all the plants and end up starving to death. There are also many birds which nest in the tundra during the summer months and then migrate south for the winter. Polar bears as well as brown bears are not uncommon to the arctic Tundra as well. Many other animals include: the snowy owl, the lemming, jaegers, the weasel, and the arctic hare to name a few. But perhaps the most annoying of all is the mosquitoes and blackflies which roam around in huge groups.

Symbiotic Relationship
The relationship of the Tundra is a delicate one; any slight faltering could result in massive repercussions. To survive, the herbivores need to eat what little dwarf shrubs and mosses that they can find and in turn the meat eaters need to eat them. Eventually when the animals die, they become the little earth that will perhaps allow some plant to grow. Without this earth the plants will not grow and all will die.
Structure Adaptations
Since the Arctic Tundra has such a harsh climate everything has had to adapt or be wiped out. The most common adaptation among animals is rather thick and white fur or feathers. Many animals such as the snowy owl have grown to use this to camouflage themselves to escape predators or as a predator themselves to catch their prey. Among Plants there are many changes. Many plants have adapted to contain most of their biomass in their roots so as to protect themselves from the winds. Also another common plant adaptation has been to develop a more aerodynamic and stronger frame to withstand the winds. Among insects the mosquitoes and blackflies have evolved into darker black colors so as to capture and save most of the days heat.

Other facts
When a vehicle passes in the Tundra area, the tracks cause deep ditches that can last not for days but for years. Also what could happen is that if a piece of the Tundra's permafrost is melted, it will cave in a large area. The Tundra is very fragile and we must take care not to destroy it for it is very frail.