Saturday, January 12, 2013

The Egnigma Of Atlantis

The Enigma of Atlantis
I believe that there never was an island known as Atlantis. If the people
of Atlantis made war against other countries to find wealth and power, don't
you think that anybody would know of the wars that went on? Even though
the people of the ancient items didn't usually record events in history, have
you ever heard of passing it on from generation to generation?
Have gods ever laid before such cruel punishment on any civilization
like Plato claims was laid on Atlantis? To say that there was terrible heat,
then tidal waves, and earthquakes during a twenty four hour period of time is
unheard of.
Atlantis is just an island of the Greek Myths and that's all the island of
Atlantis is a myth. The idea that an island almost half the Atlantic Ocean
away (Thera) could be Atlantis is insane. According to what Plato said the
island Thera was supposed to be west of the pillars of Hercules, (the pillars of
Hercules is the name the Greeks gave to the straight of Gibraltar) and Thera
is an island around Greece east of the Pillars of Hercules. The island of
Atlantis couldn't have been so wealthy or other greedy kings and queens
would have searched for the riches themselves.
I truly believe that there never was an Atlantis and future scientists will
prove my theory.

History of Howe Caverns

Howe Caverns was dicovered back in the spring of 1842 by a man named Lestor
Howe. Now Lestor Howe discovered the cavern by noticing on hot summer days
all of his cows would gather up on the same hillside, in the same spot. He
was very curious why they were doing this, so he went up there to investegate.
When he reach the spot on the hillside he noticed a large hole in the
ground, were cold air was blowing out of. The cows would gather around the
hole to cool off. He started to explore this hole as soon as he got a
light and a rope to climb down into the cavern. This is when Howe Caverns
was dicovered.
Several years after Lester Howe discovered the cavern he sarted up
a little buisness giving tour of the cavern. His tours would last 8 hours
and you were giving lunch as part of the tour. These tours ended in 1900
when a cement co. bought the land of cavern for its rich grade of limestone
for making cement. The cavern didn"t reopen to the public untill 1932,
when walkways and lighting systems were put in.

A trip to China

I went to China at 4th April, with my grandma and grandpa. That day, we got up at 7 o*clock in the morning. We went on the ship at 9:40am. When we reached China, we saw our relation, they saw us and helped us to carry the luggage. They are very kind to us.

After about 1 hour, traveled by car, we reached home, it was about 1 o*clock, we were very hungry, they*ve already cooked the lunch for us. After lunch, we walked around in the village . When we back home, we chatted until dinner was ready. There was on toilet there, so my grandpa and me cannot eat more and more although all things were very good.

After a terrible night, we went to another village. We went in the bus about 3 hours, after we reached there, it was about 4:30pm. I don*t think we could walked around the village again. The house that we lived was designed by my grandpa, we lived happily (very happy) there. -We had water, Town gas, light, TV * * Oh, great!

We went back to Hong Kong at 8th. After a the tea break at the pipe, we got onto the ship at 4:00pm. I thought I was too full, I was seasick! We reached home at exactly 6 o*clock. My mom was already cooked the dinner for us. After we enjoyed the dinner, I went back home. At home , I had a hot bath that it was one of the best enjoys in my life.

Saturday, January 5, 2013


Barbados is a small country located in the Caribbean Sea.
The capital is Bridgetown with a population of about 8,789. The
head of state of Barbados is Queen Elizabeth II and she is
represented by General Dame Nita Barrow. The total population of
the country is around 252,000. The main language is English and
the predominant religion is Christianity. Their date of
independence was November 30, 1966.
Barbados is the eastern most Caribbean Island. It is about
200 miles North-North East of Trinidad and about 100 miles East-
South East of St. Lucia. It is the second smallest country in
the Western Hemisphere. The major urban centers in the area
include Bridgetown, Speightstown, Oistins, and Holetown. The
land is mainly flat except for a series of ridges that rise up to
about 1,000 feet and then falling towards the sea.
The climate of the region consists of tropical temperatures
influenced by the Northeast trade winds. The average annual
temperature is approximately 77 degrees Fahrenheit. The daily
temperatures rarely get above 90 degrees Fahrenheit. The dry
season is cool, while the wet season is slightly warmer. The
main rains come during the months of July, August, September,
October, and November. The annual average rainfall is 40 inches
in the coastal areas and 90 inches in the central areas.
The net migration into Barbados is 4.82 per 1000. The
annual growth rate is 0.4%, which is one of the lowest in the
world. The annual birthrate is 15.45 per 1000, and the annual
deathrate is 8.27 per 1000. Barbados ranks fourth in the World
in population density with the overall density being 1526 per
square mile. The whole island is inhabited, leaving no sparsely
populated areas. The main race is Negro, which is about 92% of
the population. The remainder of the population is consists of
Whites (3.8%), Mulattoes (3.8%), and East Indians (0.4%). About
70% of the population is Anglican. The other 30% belong to
various denominations such as Moravian, Methodist, and Roman
Barbados was once under British control from 1624. Its
House of Assembly, which began in 1639, is the third oldest
legislative body in the Western Hemisphere. By the time Britain
left in 1966, the island was completely English in culture. The
British influence is still seen today in quaint pubs, cricket
games on the village greens, and in the common law.
Barbados' government is British Parliament. The queen is
the head of state and she is represented by the governor general.
The governor general appoints an advisory council. The executive
authority is the Prime Minister who is Owen Seymour Arthur which
came into power on September 6, 1994. The Deputy Prime Minister
is Billie Miller who also came into power on September 6, 1994.
The democratic government works well in the country. They have
had three general elections and one smooth transfer of power from
the Democratic Labor Party to the Barbados Labor Party. Barbados
carries on trade with other Caribbean nations and does have
diplomatic relations with Cuba. Their closest relations are with
the United Stated, and the United Kingdom. Barbados joined the
United Nations is 1966.
The economy of Barbados is one of the 35 upper middle-income
countries of the world. They have a free-market economy, but the
dominant sector is private. Their economy is based on sugar and
tourism, but the government has encouraged a policy of
diversification in order to achieve a more stable nation. They
also depend on a light manufacturing industry. Their monetary
unit is the Barbados dollar. The coins are made in 1, 5, 10, and
25 cents. The paper money is made in 1, 5, 10, 20, and 100
dollar bills. One U.S. dollar is equal to 2.01 Barbados dollar
About 60% of the land is cropland. The agriculture industry
employs 7.4% of the labor force and contributes about 8.7% to the
Gross Domestic Product. Sugarcane makes up over half the
acreage. Bananas are also grown, but only on a limited scale.
Sea island cotton is also grown. All of the farmers are required
by regulations to plant at least 12% of their arable land with
some food crop.
Barbados' natural resources include petroleum, fishing, and
natural gas. The fishing industry employs about 2,500 people and
500 small boats. Their are no natural forests in the country.
Manufacturing contributes about 11.2% to the GDP. Manufacturing
and mining employ about 18.9% of the labor force. The majority
of the industrial establishments are engaged in some form of
sugar processing. Sugar is the principal export. The principal
imports include machinery, motor vehicles, lumber, and fuels.
Barbados' per capita income of $9,200 makes it one of the highest
standards of living of all the small island states of the Eastern
Caribbean. Barbados is also one of the many transshipment points
for narcotics bound for the U.S. and Europe.
Some of the current issues in the country consist of the
pollution of coastal waters from the waste disposal ships, soil
erosion, and illegal solid waste disposal that threatens
contamination of aquifers. Barbados is also plagued with natural
disasters such as hurricanes and landslides. Their hurricane
season is between the months of June and October, which is the
same season as the U.S.


The World Factbook 1995. Central Intelligence Agency. 1995.
The World in Figures. Showers, Victor. 1973. Library of
Encyclopedia of the Third World. Kurian, George Thomas. 1987.
Library of Congress.
World Christian Encyclopedia: A comparative Study of Churches and
the Religions in the Modern World, AD 1900-2000.
Caribbean Week. "Barbados." Internet.



Submitted to: Ms.Delgado










What is an avalanche? , well it's a large mass of snow and ice or of earth or rock sliding down a mountain side or a cliff. And how does an avalanche occur, well mainly they happen by vibrations caused by movement of the earth such as an earthquake, gunfire, rainy weather, and many more.
Now I would like to talk a little about past avalanches and landslides that have occurred like the 1903 Frank landslide and avalanche that happened at the same time, in Alberta Canada it destroyed the parks canyons it's beautiful trees' it's wonderful sights and killed nearly one hundred people, and covered a small town near Alberta with ice and snow.
Another devastating avalanche incident is the 1964 Sherman slide, in which a huge avalanche was triggered by the 1964 Alaskan earthquake. The slide spilled out onto the Sherman glacier, during the big slide several other smaller slides happened and those were the one that took lives in Anchorage, and destroyed property
There are a couple of types of avalanches and how the destroy so much this one is named "Loose Snow Avalanches"1, it starts' in a small area then grows in size and mass as it descends.Another type is the "Slab Avalanche" it actually starts in a large area of ice and snow and then begins to slide.


On September 12 of 1717 crusaded down the Troilet, Italy glacier, gaining speed on a cushion of air reaching a falling velocity of km/hr over a 3600 m fall. Two towns were destroyed, with seven people killed and a 120 cows lost. The slosh of an avalanche ran up the far side of the valley at a speed of 125 km/hr.
In developed areas such as ski resorts it is possible to predict avalanches because they are controlled with explosives and artillery. In a back-country areas it is possible to predict avalanches because the forecast relies on experience of the person making the observation. There are no computer models available to predict avalanches and therefore predictions are only accomplished by repetitive observations and knowledge of snow properties.
Due to difficulty in reliable predictions method areas of avalanche hazards must rely on controlling or altering the effects of an avalanche.
The back country explorer must be highly skilled in determining safe routes and rescue procedures over and above relying on predictions of avalanches for personal safety.
Avalanches kill people many ways but the most common cause of death is suffocation. There is little air trapped in the avalanche and within a short period of time the victim loses consciousness and dies. A victim can also be killed from the force of the snow slamming into the body or by traveling in the avalanches and being smashed against trees and other objects.

Knowledge can help you avoid being caught by a snow avalanche, it may help you survive if you are buried.
Snow avalanches are natural phenomena so complex one can never have all the information necessary to predict avalanche conditions with certainty. Well this is my report on avalanches hope you learned more on avalanches but we will never know all there is to know about avalanches, sorry it's not the five pages I was lucky to find this little amount of information.

Mears,Ronald I., Design Criteria for Avalanche Control Structures in the Runout Zone,June1981.
S.D., All You Ever Wanted To Know About Snow..., November 24, 1988.
Snow Avalanches from Cold Regions Hydrology and Hydraulics,Ryan, W.L.
Snow Avalanche Hazards and Mitigation in the U.S.

World Wide Web author unknown.
Avalanche weather station author unknown.
Snow and Weather disaster station.


Table of Contents
Way of Life
Vegetation and Animal Life
Education Health

Austria, a small country in Central Europe famous for its gorgeous mountain scenery. The towering Alps, and the foothills stretch across the western, southern and central parts of the country. Broad green valleys, lovely mirror lakes and thick forest cover a good portion of the land. Austria with no coastline shares its surrounded borders with Liechtenstein and Switzerland to the west; Germany and the Czech Republic to the north; Hungary and Slovakia to the east; and to the south Italy and Slovenia. North-East is Vienna, Austria's capital and largest city, where about a fifth of the people live.
Austria has a population of about 7" million. Most Austrian's choose to live in the lower east areas of the country and just south of the Danube River. Also the capital and largest city, more than one and a half-million of the Austrian population lives in Vienna. Other cities with more than 100,000 people living in them consist of Graz, Innsbruck, Linz, and Scuzburg.
Austrians do not like being classified as Germans, Austria is basically Germanic in language and ethnic association. Some minorities include 40,000 Croats, 70,000 Solvenes, and a small group of Hungarians (11,000) and Czechs (5,000). Most Austrian's live south of the Danube River. Austrians enjoy an array of fine foods such as a Viennese Clich otherwise known as a Wiener Schnitzel, and many fine cakes and pastries. The average life expectancy for males is 72 and females 78.
In May and June Vienna hosts the Vienna Festival. This festival is a celebration of music, arts, and theater. Austrians have a great love for music, many of the greatest composers were born and played there, many like Beethoven and other popular composers. Operas are also very popular, and The Vienna State Opera House is the most popular for such an activity. Festivals play an important part of Austria. One festival takes place throughout the province of Tyrol, in the beginning of spring. People dress up and pretend to chase the evil spirits of winter away.
Way of Life
Most Austrians living in the cities live in four and five story apartments. Others live in single story homes, or high rises. Clothing is very much like the style here in the U.S. but Austrians tend to dress up more often. On special occasions Austrian's dress in the national dress, a green trimmed, gray wool suit with a coat and knickers for men, the women's dress consists of a dirndl; a peasant coat, a blouse, a wide Girdle, and a bright full apron. Austrians eat elegant foods and many exquisite desserts. Beer or wine is usually served with meals.
Austrians love the outdoors, and the many different physical features of Austria allow the people to enjoy many different types of sports. In winter Austrians enjoy ice skating, skiing, tobogganing, bobsledding, ice hockey, ski jumping, and curling, a game in which the players slide heavy stones along the ice toward a circular target. Summer sports include boating, fishing, hiking, mountain climbing, swimming, and water skiing. The people also enjoy biking, camping, picnics, and soccer.
Vegetation and Animal Life
Deciduous trees, including beech, birch, and oak, are very populated in the lower altitudes. In Alpine areas conifers extend all over. Bare rocks and grass slops continue to the snow line.
The boar, bear, wolf, and lynx have disappeared, but red deer, chamois, marmot, and grouse still live in the protected Alpine reserves. In the grassy flats gray goose, white tailed, and spotted eagles, and great white herons breed. In the village of Rust, white storks return annually to their chimney nests.
Around 400 B.C. Celtic tribes occupied Austria. Around 15 B.C. Rome took control from the Celtic tribes. After the collapse of the Roman Empire many different empires took control of Austria. In 955 the king of Germany, Otto I, took control of Austria, this empire later came to be know as the Holy Roman Empire. In 1806 the empire ended.
The Babenberg family controlled north-eastern Austria from 976 until 1246, when the last Bebenberg duke died without an heir and the king of Bohemia seized the region.
The Hapsburgs lost the Holy Roman crown in the 1300's, but a Habsburg was once again elected emperor in 1438. From then on, the Habsburgs held the title.
Between the 1400's and 1500's, the Habsburg emperors acquired new lands of Bohemia and Hungary, but their control was shaken by the Protestant Reformation in the 1500's and the Thirty Years' War of 1618 to 1648. During these centuries, Austria emerged as the chief state in the empire. The ottoman turks tried to drive Austria from Hungary and made two unsuccessful attacks on Vienna, but they were defeated in the late 1600's.
In 1806, after losing many battles in the Napoleonic Wars in the 1700's and 1800's, Emperor Francis II was forced to end the Holy Roman Empire.
During the 1800's, revolutions broke out across Europe. Austria's minister of foreign affairs, Prince Klemens von Metternich, tried to suppress al revolutionary movements in the Austrian Empire, but in 1848, revolutionaries demanded the establishment of a constitutional government and Metternich fled.
In the late 1800's and early 1900's, Slavs in Austria-Hungary demanded the right to govern themselves. Then, in 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a member of the Slavic nationalist movement in Serbia, killed Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the heir to the Austro-Hungaraian throne. In response, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, which started Word War I. Germany, Britain, Francs, Russia, and the United States helped Austria Hungary in fighting.
In 1918, Austria-Hungary was defeated. The last Habsburg emperor was overthrown and the empire was slip into several countries. Austria became a republic. It adopted a democratic Constitution in 1920, but conflicting political parties struggled for supremacy. In 1934, members of the Austrian Nazi Party killed Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss, and in 1938, German troops seized Austria. Adolf Hitler united Austria and Germany and led both countries into World War II in 1939.
After Germany was defeated in 1945, Austria was occupied by the Allies, and a government based on Austria's 1920 Constitution was established. In 1955, the Allies ended their occupation with the understanding that Austria would not be on anyone's side in a war.
Since the 1950's, Austria economy has grown steady, and the country has been politically stable. As a neutral nation, Austria has been the site of many international meetings.
Austrian's religions consist of 84% Roman Catholic, 6% Protestant, 6% Atheist, and 4% other. Austria and the pope have an agreement in which the Roman Catholic Church in Austria receives financial support from the national government. But Austrians have freedom of worship, Austria also has about 12,000 Jews, must of whom live in Vienna.
For quite some time Austria has been on the of the great cultural European countries. Austria has made some outstanding achievements in architecture, literature, and painting. Austria's most famous and important contribution to the western culture has been music. During the late 1700,'s and early 1800's Austria has released many Great Composers like; Joseph Hayan, Mozart, Schubert, Mahler, Wolf, and many more. Austria's state opera house presents opera 10 months of the year.
Architecture in Austria's has some of Europe's best examples of baroque architecture. This style has been dated back to the 1600's. Gold, marble, and wood has pleased the sense of many people. Painting and literature are also very important in Austria.
98% of the Austrian people speak German, the nation language. Different parts of the country speak various dialects of German. Only about a percent of the population speaks other languages. In Burgenland 24,000 people speak Serbo Croation and Magyar. In Carinthia 20,000 speak Slovene, and small groups in Vienna speak Czech or Slovak.
Education and Health
The Austrian literacy rate is virtually 100%. Between the ages of six and fifteen years of age, Austrian's are required to attend school. The school system gives eight years of elementary school. Outside of the rural areas, some students go to either a vocational school to train for a trade, or to a secondary school, where they prepare over an eight year period to enter a University.
Austria's standards for health care are very high. All citizens are covered by national health insurance. Vienna was Europe's greatest medical center in the early 20th century, known for the modern psychiatry under Sigmund Freud.
The official name of Austria is Republic of Austria, Austria has a Federal Government that is made up of provinces which include: Burgenland; Cariuthia; Lower Austria; Salzburg; Sytria; Tyrol; Upper Austria; the city of Vienna; and Volaryburg. All Austrians 19 years and older are permitted to vote.
Austrian's head of state is the President. The President serves a six year term. The President is allowed to serve as many terms as desired, but no more than two terms in a row. The President may not declare war, or veto a bill passed by parliament. The Chancellor and Cabinet run the Austrian Government. The President appoints the Chancellor which serves as head of Government.
Austria's political parties consist of the conservative People's Party and the liberal Socialist Party, the third largest party, The Freedom Party. In Austria, the supreme court is the highest court of appeal in civil and criminal cases. Special courts judge juvenile matters, labor deputes, etc. Austria's armed forces consists of approximately of 55,000 men. All men 18 years old, must serve a six month term in the army and additional time.
Altitude, wind, and mountains is the key to the climate in Western and Central Austria. A warm, dry wind coming from the south is called a Foen. A Foen can cause snow to thaw suddenly and result in an avalanche. Eastern Austria tends to have a harsher and much colder climate compared to the west. The east has cold winters, short moderate summers, and a bit of rain. The low temperature in four major Austrian cities can range between -3.3 degrees Celsius and 2.2 degrees Celsius. The highs for the summer can be between 17.8 and 20 degrees Celsius.
Austria's had a negative balance of trade since 1945, Although Austria has a large income from visitors. Austria imports transport equipment, heavy machinery, fuels, foodstuffs, and raw materials. Austria exports lumber, paper, pulp, textiles, iron, steel, electric power, and machinery.
The greatest natural resources in Austria is it's waterpower. "Much of the potential hydroelectric capacity, however, remains to be exploited" (Prodigy 1994) 40% of the land is taken up by forests, which is used for timber. The most important resources of Austria are magnesite graphite; iron; ore; lignite; oil, and natural gas.
"Two trends have characterized post war Austrian agriculture: a decline in the portion of the labor force engaged in farming and a decrease in small-scale farming, with farms of less than twelve acres either disappearing or being consolidated." (Prodigy 1994) Some of the leading crops include barley, wheat, rye, oats, potatoes, sugar beets, and corn. Meat production has risen sharply, and dairy farming is more than adequate to meet national needs.


Most Australians are governed by three levels of government - local, state and federal. For instance,
a family living in Sydney would have the Sydney City Council (local) looking after such things as
garbage collection, park maintenance and dog controls. Australians pay their local government by
paying "rates" - paid according to the area and position of any land that you own. They would then
be governed by the New South Wales Government, which would look after such things as roads,
and the police force. Finally, they are governed by the Australian (Federal) Government, which is
involved with trade, foreign affairs and the national treasury. Both the State and Federal
Governments are paid through income tax.

Australian governments at a State and Federal level are run according to the Westminster System,
used in England. This means that there are two houses of Parliament, a lower house (The House Of
Representatives) and an upper house (The Senate). Decisions put forward and approved in the
House of Representatives must then be approved a second time by the Senate. The only exception
to this is the Queensland Government, which has only a House of Representatives.

Local governments are stationed in centre of the town or city that they provide to. State
governments are run from the state capitals, while the Federal Government sits in Canberra, in the
Australian Capital Territory.

There are six states, and two major territories in Australia. The states are: Queensland, New South
Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia and Western Australia. The two territories are the
Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory. Australia also has a number of areas run by
the Federal Government (dependent areas). These include the Ashmore and Cartier Islands,
Christmas Island, the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, the Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island, the McDonald
Islands and Norfolk Island.

Britain originally ruled Australia as a penal colony after it was discovery in 1788. However, on
January 1st, 1901, Australia's six states were unified ("federated") into one nation, formally known
(and still known) as the Commonwealth Of Australia. Australia was originally governed from
Melbourne, however in 1907 the Federal Parliament moved to Canberra, where it has been ever

The biggest political debate at the moment in Australia is whether or not Australia should become a
republic. This means that Australia would be (in official terms) completely separated from its mother
country, England, and would have an Australian Head Of State. This change to a republic could
occur as early as the year 2001, exactly one hundred years after Federation.

Atmospheric Circulation

Atmospheric Circulation and More

The global energy balance and atmospheric motion mainly determine
the circulation of the earth's atmosphere. There is a hierarchy of motion
in atmospheric circulation. Each control can be broken down into smaller
controlling factors. The global energy balance is an equal balance of
short-wave radiation coming into the atmosphere and long-wave radiation
going out of the atmosphere. This is called thermal equilibrium. The
earth is at thermal equilibrium; however, there can have a surplus or
deficit of energy in parts of the heat budget. If you have a net
radiation surplus warm air will rise, and a net radiation deficit will
make the air cool an fall. Air gets heated at the equator because of the
inter tropical convergence zone and rises to the poles. There the air is
cooled and it floats back down to the equator where the process is
repeated. Another major contributing factor to the circulation of the air
is due to the subtropical highs. These highs like the ITCZ migrate during
the different seasons.
The idealized belt model is a great representation of the general
circulation of the atmosphere. The equatorial belt of variable winds and
calms ranges from 5 degrees north to 5 degrees south. This wind belt is
characterized by weak winds and low pressure from the inter tropical
convergence zone. As you go further north or south you encounter the
Hadley Cells. Hadley cell circulation is caused by the movement of high
pressure from the latitudes at 5 to 30 degrees north and 5 to 30 degrees
south to low pressure areas around the equator.
The movement of air from high pressure to low pressure causes
convergence. This convergence generates the production of wind. The
winds that are produced from this are the trade winds. The winds blow
from a northwest direction in the northern hemisphere, and in the southern
hemisphere the winds blow from a southeast direction. The trade winds are
the largest wind belt. The westerlies, they lie between 35 and 60 degrees
north and south latitude. The wind blows from the west , thus their name.
The westerlies are in the Ferrell cell. Cold air from the polar regions
falls down and then is heated up and pushed upward with the westerlies.
>From 65 to 90 degrees north and south lie the polar easterlies. It exists
because of the pressure gradient that is created by the temperatures. The
winds are also deflected by the coralias effect. This deflection air is
to the right in the northern hemisphere, and to the left in the southern
hemisphere. The reason that this happens is because of the rotation of
the earth on its axis.
Two moving patterns of the general circulation of the atmosphere
are the cyclones and anticyclones. Cyclones are low pressure systems
characterized by converging and rising air. On the other hand
anticyclones are characterized by high pressure because they have
diverging air that is descending. There are also land and sea breezes
which are produced by daily differences in cooling and heating of the land
and water. Sea breezes bring cooler air in the day, while land breezes
push cooler air over the water at nighttime.
There also exists radiation surpluses and deficits through out the
earth. There is a constant surplus between the latitudes of 15 degrees
north and 15 degrees south. In the latitudes between 15 and 38 degrees
north and south there is a net radiation surplus that varies annually.
There is a net radiation deficit annually in the latitudes from 38 to 90
degrees north and south. These surpluses and deficits are due to the high
sun angle in the low latitudes, as well as the increased length of
Finally the seasons of the earth are determined by the tilt of the
earth on its axis. The earth is on a tilt of 23.5 degrees. When it
revolves around the sun the earth is exposed to the sun at different
degrees at different months of the year. Because of this phenomenon we
get seasons on the earth. The earth and all of its circulation patterns,
energy balances, and motions of the atmosphere are all very complex;
however, it can be easily understood by my wonderful summary.

art through the ages

From stick figures in the sand and the earliest animals painted and carved in stone, people worldwide have reacted to the world by making images. The fundamental goal of art, especially in the past, was to convey meaning and express important ideas, revealing what was significant to every society, by arresting images. In recognizing the subject matter of any painting, you have to look at the artist's intentions, which are regularly connected to social conditions, national or global issues and the demands of the public. To avoid the pitfalls of judging all art by our own personal experiences and subjective views, we have to learn the background surrounding the artist when the work was created- the social and historical conditions of the time and the philosophical views which affected the way in which the artist viewed the world. (Russell, 1984)
Art is as varied as the life from which it springs and each artist portrays different aspects of the world they know. Briefly, it may be said that artists paint to discover truth and to create order. The creators of art make discoveries about the wonders and beauty of nature and the dignity and nobility of man. They give these concepts an order to help us understand life in a greater depth. In understanding the history and style of any period of art, we have to comprehend the balance between social and political development of that particular era. Within each and every period, development of style is affected by a response to particular philosophies, social and economic conditions, political and spiritual influences. World Issues have been reflected in art throughout the ages, and this premise is supported by three particular periods of time. This is clearly evident when viewing ancient art, where symbolism was an important part of society. Also, through the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, where art was a critical form of expression and finally in the modern age of art where even in looking into the works of individual artists, one can get a sense of the feelings and events of the time and the world. Let us now examine theses three periods in detail, to support this hypothesis.

If we are aware of meaning of religious, political, or other symbols, it will better our understanding of the frame of mind of the artist. Each piece of art is unique, a reflection of the artist's perceptions, insights and experiences. Certain aspects of the world are often exaggerated, or eliminated, while the art reflects both the period and the artists own orientation. Aristotle once said that "Art is the human intelligence playing over the natural scene, ingeniously affecting it toward fulfillment of human purposes." (Bronowski 64) This wonderful world of creation began in ancient times, when people first created images to express their response to the world around them. Various civilizations in the past painted images preparing to understand life after death. Another favorite subject was the glorification of gods and rulers. The subject which an artist selects for a painting depends largely upon the time in which he/she lives. A painter painting in the middle ages would probably have picked a religious subject, for that was almost the only kind of topic portrayed at the time. Still, outside factors of current events and different world issues would greatly effect the artists state of mind, and therefore his paintings.
As you look into the ancient past of Egypt, it is quite interesting to note the bureaucracy in the times of 3000 BC, which helps us to understand the art work accomplished in these times. As the Egyptians were united under one central government and ruled by a pharaoh, they were organized by control through a tightly organized bureaucracy. The Pharaoh dominated all facets of the peoples lives. The people dreamed of afterlife as a reward for their hard work while living, and often depicted afterlife where the spirit could find pleasure wandering unseen among the living. The palace art and architecture of these ancient kingdoms was intended to emphasize a hierarchical ordering of society, form ruler, to subject. Egypt's tombs and temples were ornamented with paintings of great distinction. A painting at the tomb of Theber shows floral offerings being made to the hawk god Mentu. This is highly stylized and rich, showing the worshipping of animal gods at the time.
In Greece around the same time period, the mainland and the islands were settled by non-Greek tribes from Asia minor. In Crete, a civilization evolved to rival the wealth and sophistication of surrounding places, like Egypt. In later years, these people named Aninoicens had become quite wealthy from trade with the near east. This point of trade was controversial to what they initially believed in. The art of these new times were filled with glowing images of floral and fauna , portraying a society that had a love for nature and beauty. Before, their painting would contain feelings of angst and bitterness.
As time progressed, the good times were limited by many wars and hostile grounds. In 1250 BC, during the Trojan war, the minoins developed a new form of monumental art to mark the graves of the numerous dead The size and function of these vases brought them closer to sculpture than most pottery. These monumental vases were painted in abstract, and geometrical patterns with no reference to the naturalness of minoin life. Often portrayed, were scenes depicting a moment in the individuals life, or a burial scene to commemorate the dead.
As we proceed through the times and move to the fifth century, you can see that this era was dominated by the city of Athens when Athenian drama, poetry, philosophy and politics ruled. In times of the Persian wars, naturalness of action in narrative painting and relief carving came together. This emphasized human dignity in free standing sculptures. Life size statues were created for the first time, most of these, including the famous Kouros and Kritos boy, stand with one foot forward, as if they were heading off to war. Artists put into their pictures our common hopes, ideals, dreams and passions and show us their meaning and value concerning issues surrounding the times. Creators in all the arts make fascinating discoveries about the wonders and the world along with the naturalness, movement and structure of the human form. They give these an order which enables us to see and understand the past and past life with greater depth.
Christianity spread slowly throughout the western world, becoming an official religion of the roman empire in the fourth century. By this time, the empire was falling apart, so there was a stiff and formal style of art called Byzantine. This style lasted for centuries, until conditions were greatly improved.
During the middle ages, extending from 500, to 1500, the church was the source of main stability in western Europe and the monasteries alone kept the artistic culture alive. Beginning in the twelfth century, life for most people became more secure. Towns grew, trade excelled and industry began to prosper. Large, quickly growing towns became centers of wealth, learning and especially art. In northern Europe, a true gothic style developed, best known for the magnificent cathedrals and stain glass windows created in this era. This high rise in town life, brought with it a spirit of inquiry and invention. A famous painting created in the Byzantine style of this time was 'The Madonna of Angels' by Giovanni Anabue. In this painting, it is noted that Mary and Jesus are on a throne surrounded by angels. Although portrayed as lifeless, the figures begin to take on more human characteristics than ever before, for town life increased the knowledge of the artists, coming together and improving their styles.
By the latter half of this civilization, there was a shift to more gracious, enjoyable lifestyles, characterized by courtly art expressing grand splendor. In France at this time, scholarly art took on secular elegance, while in the court of Louis IX. Pressures of a secular society made gothic artists turn towards elegance and fashion- especially in Wells cathedral, which was then erected. This was an architectural masterpiece commissioned by the king, with enlightening Christian murals to symbolize the wealth and good times, and to welcome the prosperous times ahead.

The development of the Flemish school of painting in the fifteenth century marked the end of the great gothic period. This happened just in time for a rebirth in painting - the ever famous Renaissance period. In this period of exploration, invention and discovery, artists traveled to new lands seeking fresh ideas, also studying the world and the heavens. Here, a culture of antiquity was rediscovered. Artists in this period, with increased knowledge of the world, began to study anatomy, science and mathematics involving perspective and dimension. Art was exciting, particularly in the high Renaissance, yet the times were troubled. Discoveries in science were changing the ways man thought of himself. The growth of wealth and the discovery of new lands had triggered a struggle for r power and many wars resulted. The challenges which this age brought fourth, fortunately spurred a group of brilliant artists. Younger, Holland and Flanders are some of the many well known artists of this era.
As you can now notice, as we go as far back as the European middle ages and ancient times, art was a valuable form of expression, as it depicted feelings and recorded events which were occurring in various countries. In these times, where very few people were literate, art was an important way an individual could explain stories of the world with great expression.

Ever since the colonial times, there has been a strong tradition of realism in the United States. George Bellows and Ben Shahn were both social realists who painted members of the working class and their problems and pleasures. Painters like these were rejected from the art academy's and salons because of this supposedly vulgar and improper subject matter. These wealthy, authoritative figures believed that painters should paint to represent nymphs, gods , holy images, or at the least, aristocrats. In one of Shawn's paintings, titled 'Mine Disaster', he represented a scene of a tragedy which occurred close to his home. He depicted a calamitous scene of a gathering of relatives waiting for news of a mining accident. Although he was basically a realist, he included some abstract impressionism in the background to reinforce the sense of desolation and create tenseness, grief and anxiety.
Painting developed later in England than in the other European countries, partly because of the fact that both Henry the eighth and Thomas Cromwell destroyed the works of art in English churches and cathedrals. They believed that there were some hidden meanings, or false biblical references which they could not understand. Contrary to the beliefs of these rulers, many artists believed that art may be the key to existence and that artwork remained one possible way of speaking truth in a world of chaos. After the restoration of the Stuart rulers in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, people of wealth in England preferred to employ foreign artists.
The Neoclassical period began in 1789. It combined a new scientific approach and appealed to the intellectual who believed in power of reason to uplift society. This movement became associated with republican ideas of revolution and was said to belong to the age of "reason and revolution".( Russel 25) Flowing this period, in the early eighteenth century, a period labeled Romanticism evolved. In this period, confidence in reason and artificiality of court life was characterized by a great value of emotion. Often there was an incorporated fascination with untamed nature, picturesque or exotic themes. For the most part, times were good, life was simple and wild imagery in art reelected a carefree nature. Realism and social protest occurred at the beginning of the nineteenth century; the inception of the industrial revolution encouraged a capitalist economy. The paintings of this time involved social criticism of many political figures, judicial and police systems, to rebel against the changing ways. Again, the realistic portrayals of daily life were rejected by the authoritative standards of the academy- especially the honorary 'Salon of Paris'. This brought about an artistic rebellion called impressionism, where artists painted directly against the standards of the salon. Suitably, they called themselves impressionists. These artists wanted to portray the immediacy of a moment and in doing so, capture the truth of the times and the lives they lived. There were four main influences on these artists, these were the newly introduced camera, the art of past artists, the afresh obtained, imported Japanese woodcuts and new scientific discoveries in light and color. With the introduction of the camera, artists were no longer needed to transcribe reality, therefore they were forced to find new outlets of artistic expression. With Japanese art to study from, there were new and exciting techniques to try and replicate. Through this age of revolution, a growing movement towards freedom for personal expression in subject matter, techniques and style of art were signaled.
These periods of expression were merely buildups to the advanced movements and rapid changes of the art in the twentieth century. Even before the triggering point of the times- being the first world war, many post war artists became engrossed in highly personalized interpretations- antibiotics, computerization, electronic transistors and the prospects of an atomic world. A brief feminist movement became a passionate cause for some, combining feelings with a response to the real world. Still, the world was preparing for the technological breakthroughs to come.
Out of the mystification of changing needs and changing material, art of the twentieth century, through creative minds, brought measures of logic into play. Following a brief euphoria of World war one, arts in the depression became more socially conscious, realistic and nationalistic. Realism derived from traditional American art, which was basically expressionism with strong emotional overtones, focusing on feelings involved in such somber times. It was said that "The future of art no longer seems to lie with creation of enduring masterpieces, but with defining alternative cultural strategies."(McHall, 206)
Up until the twentieth century, painting in Canada was solely dominated by French and English styles. This was until 1910, when the group of seven set out to develop a nationalistic style by expressing true Canadian spirit in their paintings. The portrayal of landscapes made Canadians aware of the magnificence of their own country and fostered a pride in a particular comeliness.
During World War II, a number of European painters ventured to the United States, where they had a profound effect on young painters. After the war, a group of these artists initialed a movement that became famous throughout the world and served as a model for artists everywhere. This was called abstract expressionism. The artists produced works which were noticeably larger in size, energetic in effect and incredibly individualistic in character. Initially, these paintings illustrated war scenes and images commemorating the soldiers who had perished, but following the war, the paintings were continued to be produced, with a change in subject matter. These works convey the strength and confidence of a powerful country, but they were also private statements proclaiming the "importance of the individual in the face of pressures for conformity and depersonalization."(comptons '96) With this strong movement, the United states became the center of the western art world for the first time in history.
When looking into the lives of individual artists, you can see how events which effected them and the emotions projected by various events were revealed through paint. Picasso is an incredibly interesting painter to study, for he had an adventurous life involving strong emotion. Picasso played an important role in some of the many different movements of the early twentieth century. He formed a style called his 'blue' period between 1901 and 1904 where he illustrated elements of melancholy, dominated by subjects of vagabonds, beggars, prostitutes, poverty stricken and deprived people. He abandoned all rules of linear perspective and overlapped planes even as he went through his rose period, where his subject matter contained mostly dancers, acrobats and harlequins.
Through many more years, he experimented with increasingly analytical and geometric forms while continuing to develop a unique cubist technique, making paintings less "rigorous and austere"(cd rom). His masterpiece , "Guernica", was his moving vision of the Spanish civil war. It was his response to the 1937 bombing by the fascist forces of the small Basque town. This was a great emotional/political statement, which combined violent distortion of images, with a restrained subtlety of colour. Between two marriages, he also had a mistress named Francoise Gilot. His meetings with Gilot inspired Picasso to create a charming series of paintings featuring mythology and including representations of fauns, nymphs and pipers- quite different from his usual style. As Picasso remained in France throughout World war II, he was forbidden to show his work, and he joined the French communist party. A number of his paintings then expressed the horror of the war ( The Charnel House 1945) and following this sequence, he responded to the Korean war by Painting 'War and Peace'-1952, and 'Massacre in Korea'-1951. It is very obvious to see that the worldwide events which took place in Picasso's life time greatly effected his subject matter and his feelings.
The second world war was a watershed for art, while Nazi occupation of Paris helped to break down the dam to be the home of modern art. Artists fled to the United States to escape the fascism. The success of the United States in the cold war was measured by the fact that within a decade of the end of World war II, the United States enjoyed a cultural reputation, fitting into a higher global power status. The Soviet Union at this time was committed to crude socialist realism, suppressing other kinds of art like abstract expressionism. In turn, the United States embodied all the U.S.S.R denied.
A trend that arose in the late 1950's was a reaction against abstract expressionism, it was labeled popart. Rather than avoiding references to mass culture, pop artists accepted and used them. Popular subject matter were soft drink bottles, hamburgers, gas stations, comic strips, billboards and airplanes. In using these popular images, artists celebrated the technological culture and revealed it's insolence and cheapness. Andy Warhol is probably the most famous pop artist. In his work he clearly illustrates the influence of machine production. Often his repeated portraits of identical images were based on photographs that had been enlarged by mechanical means. This style provides a multiplicity of views and moods of attractive women ( in most cases). This style was supposed to represent a wild zest for life which these women possessed. " This was also meant to give the art a sense of abiding and fascinating tension."(Bronowski 14)
In modern times, nationalist art became an important topic as well as internationalism in the art world. At any given time, in major cities worldwide, work from many nations are on show. Even though we except the fact that the global art scene consists of a network of cosmopolitan cities, it is becoming increasingly obvious that art recognizes no boundaries in present day. Robert Motherwell stated in 1966 that "Art is not national, to be merely an American or French painter is to be nothing; to fall to overcome ones initial environment is never to reach the human." Even in the early part of this century, but progressing through the years, artists saw themselves as internationally linked by aesthetic and conceptual issues with universal readings. Globalization in this case is revealed as a preferable substitute to nationalism. It is actually dangerously misleading to label art of the past or present into national packages. In today's world it is difficult for post colonial nations to maintain identity and integrity in the global art world. There is no guarantee that national art will flourish in the world and raise profile, it depends on the initial economic support. There have been small national successes, for instance in Haiti, murals were painted on the city walls to celebrate "new Haiti" in 1986. This event bore witness to national solidarity in the face of oppression. It brought future hopes and a vehicle for communication for a country where 90% are illiterate.(Buck, 1991)
The modern age of reason promised to resolve all problems through the application of science. Art of this time echoed a preoccupation with technology and environment. Today, many artists feel liberated from tradition and rules and feel free to follow any exploration, but as these artists are witness to many global events, tragedies and breakthroughs, these are often reflected in their works. Fad and fashion are nurtured by mass media and artists struggle to do anything to capture attention. Enormous diversity characterizes present day painting. This diversity is characteristic of modern life, and each style reflects, questions, or analyses some aspects of contemporary society.

"Through painting, the artist expresses ideas and emotions, as well as a version of the reality he or she perceives, in a two dimensional visual form."(cd rom) Some artists paint concrete forms with which viewers are generally familiar with and some try to create entirely abstract relationships. The way a painting is constructed does not change the fact that as life goes on, and world events weather negative or beneficial occur, these events are reflected through the universal language of art. To study the paintings of any age is to look in the diverse interpretations of the era in which they were produced. Through painting, artists can give expressions of their own ideas and emotions corresponding to personal, national or global topics. As painting depicts the lives we live, it can also quite clearly be stated that an appreciation of painting and all art forms, can also deepen and enrich the lives we live.

Daily Logs
March 19th '96
I have already had an interview with Mr. Cramm and decided to do my SIP on Art and how world issues have been reflected in art throughout the ages. This well be an interesting project for me because I am an art major, and enjoy every aspect of art and art history. It will be interesting to incorporate the two subjects. Today I met with Kath Peer to set up times when she can teach me and show me some of her slides. I also took out some art history books from the Unionville H.S. library.
March 20th '96
This morning I went to the Unionville public library and took out some more books on art history. I began looking into them and making notes. I have formalized an introduction and basically organized my essay (and the messages I want to convey). I need to book another interview before I do any more, but I feel that I have a stable start to this project.
March 21st '96
Today I talked to Kath Peer for a while on her ideas for which time periods I should study, and which world issues I should look in to. I'm going to try and set out some timelines to help. Today I also read some of my "art in the ancient world" book- I feel I should read a bit before I start taking serious notes.
March 27th '96
Today I planned on going in for an interview, but unfortunately I missed my but, so K continued reading the history books to familiarize myself with my general topic. So far I have read into ancient Greek and Roman art/issues and started into renaissance. I have set dates for myself, so that I can start organizing my time and working hard to meet the deadline.
April 2nd '96
Today I managed to accomplish a lot of work on my essay. I have read and now made notes on many interesting and informative books, and as of today, I have recorded a lot of useful material.
April 12th '96
I researched the life, art and livelihood of Pablo Picasso today. I wanted to go into detail with a couple of famous artists lives, and I think Picasso was a great choice. A lot of his paintings were impressions of wars and events which occurred in his lifetime- which he had very strong feelings towards. I have almost finished my note making, and just need to look more in detail to the past century (20th) of art.
April 17th '96
Wow! Finally I am finished a long and hard battle of note making. This morning I went through my twenty seven pages of rough notes and highlighted them all according to the three major time areas I am focusing on. Now I can finally get on to the easy part- the essay writing.
May 6th '96
I have spent the past three nights writing the first copy of my essay. The notes and examples came together very nicely, and I feel that I have written a substantially good essay. I still have to type it and edit, but most of the work is done and I feel fairly competent of what I have accomplished.
May 25th '96
My Essay is done- written, edited, spell checked and printed. Today I organized basic notes for my presentation which will occur on the 31st of this month. I recently spoke with my new art teacher Ms. Spittle and she has some interesting ideas about my topic, so soon I will be speaking to her again and finalizing my plans. This has been an all round enjoyable project, and I feel that I did not need to take a large amount of quotes, or even basic ideas from books, because of the extensive knowledge I already have in art history.

Works Cited

Bevetzin, Norman. The Arts in Canada. Copp Clark Publishing, Toronto: 1977

Bronowski, J. The Visionary Eye. The MIT Press, Mass.: 1978

Buck, Louis. Relative Values. PBC Books, London England: 1991

Casson, Jean. The Concise Encyclopedia of Symbolism. Chartwell Books Inc.,New Jersey: 1979

Clark, Kenneth. The Romantic Rebellion. Butler and Tanner Ltd., Great Britain: 1973

Comptons Interactive Encyclopedia. Tribune New Media/Education Company: 1992- 1995

Osbourne, Harold. Oxford Companion to Art. Oxford University Press, England: 1970

Arizona Concrete


John McCollam

Geology 101, Section 12262
Randy Porch
20 November 1996

According to the Mine Faculty at the University of Arizona, cement is manufactured primarily from suitable limestone and shale rocks. Arizona had two dry-process cement plants in 1969, namely the Arizona Portland Cement Company plant in Pima County, near Tucson, and the American Cement Corporation plant at Clarkdale, in Yavapai County (52-53).
The use of cementing materials goes back to the ancient Egyptians and Romans, but the invention of modern portland cement is usually attributed to Joseph Aspdin, a builder in Leeds, England, who obtained a patent for it in 1824. Currently, the annual world production of portland cement is around 700 million metric tons (Danbury).
Many people use the words concrete and cement interchangeably, but they=re not. Concrete is to cement as a cake is to flour. Concrete is a mixture of ingredients that includes cement but contains other ingredients also (Day 6-7).
Portland cement is produced by pulverizing clinker consisting essentially of hydraulic calcium silicates along with some calcium aluminates and calcium aluminoferrites and usually containing one or more forms of calcium sulfate (gypsum) as an interground addition. Materials used in the manufacture of portland cement must contain appropriate proportions of calcium oxide, silica, alumina, and iron oxide components. During manufacture, analyses of all materials are made frequently to ensure a uniformly high quality cement.
Selected raw materials are crushed, milled, and proportioned in such a way that the resulting mixture has the desired chemical composition. The raw materials are generally a mixture of calcareous (calcium oxide) material, such as limestone, chalk or shells, and an argillaceous (silica and alumina) material such as clay, shale, or blast-furnace slag. Either a dry or a wet process is used. In the dry process, grinding and blending operations are done with dry materials. In the wet process, the grinding and blending are done with the materials in slurry form. In other respects, the dry and wet processes are very much alike.
After blending, the ground raw material is fed into the upper end of a kiln. The raw mix passes through the kiln at a rate controlled by the slope and rotational speed of the kiln. Burning fuel (powdered coal, oil, or gas) is forced into the lower end of the kiln where temperatures of 2600°F to 3000°F change the raw material chemically into cement clinker, grayish-black pellets about the size of 1/2-in.-diameter marbles.
The clinker is cooled and then pulverized. During this operation a small amount of gypsum is added to regulate the setting time of the cement. The clinker is ground so fine that nearly all of it passes through a No. 200 mesh (75 micron) sieve with 40,000 openings per square inch. This extremely fin gray powder is portland cement (Kosmatka and Panarese 12-15).
Dany Seymore of Show Low Ready Mix said that the cement used by Show Low Ready Mix is trucked in by Apex Freight Company and comes from the cement plant in Clarkdale, Arizona, now know as Phoenix Cement. Their aggregate comes from Brimhall Sand and Rock in Snowflake, Arizona. Show Low Ready Mix uses Fly Ash from the A.P.S. power plant just out side of Joseph City, Arizona, in their cement. The mixtures they use are as follows:
Silicia Dioxide Cement 21% Ash 62%
Aluminum Trioxide Cement 4% Ash 23%
Ferric Oxide Cement 3% Ash 6%
Calcium Oxide Cement 64% Ash 3.5%
Mag. Oxide Cement 2.5% Ash 1.2%
Sulfur Trioxide Cement 3% Ash .2%
These combine to make:
1. Tricalcium silicate C3S
2. Dicalcium silicate C2S
3. Tricalcium aluminate C3A
4. Tetracalcium aluminoferrite C4AF
1 and 2 make up 75% of cement. 1 and 2 plus H2O equal CSH (Calcium Silicate Hydrate) which is the glue. Fly Ash is C3S plus C2S which equals Calcium hydrazide which is a white stuff and water soluble. Calcium Hydrazide and Fly Ash equal CSH.
The winter and summer mixtures are different due to the weather conditions. For winter, Fly Ash is not used because it inhibits the set time of the concrete. Also used is accelerators to help the concrete set faster. A material called Fibermesh is used in the concrete for reinforcement and to control cracking as the concrete sets. Mr. Seymore also states that heat and moisture are the main components to make concrete set up.
The concrete is mixed out of the plant into the truck so the materials can be feathered together and mixed up properly. The PSI ratings are determined by the mixture of sand, aggregate, cement, water, and chemical additives that are mixed together. The most common mixtures for residential are 2500 to 3000 PSI.
Concrete cannot be delivered any where that is more than 90 minutes away from the batch plant, unless a chemical inhibiter is used to put the concrete to sleep until it reaches the sight of delivery. Then another chemical is added to activate the concrete.
Show Low Ready Mix mixes approximately 25,000 to 30,000 cubic yards of concrete in Show Low per year. That is only 70 to 75 percent of the total concrete poured in Show Low. There are a few other companies that also handle the Show Low area.
Concrete is basically a mixture of two components: aggregates and paste. The paste, comprised of Portland cement, (the term APortland cement@ pertains to a calcareous hydraulic cement produced by heating the oxides of silicon, calcium, aluminum, and iron.) Water binds the aggregates (sand and gravel or crushed stone) into a rocklike mass. The paste hardens because of the chemical reaction of the cement and water.
The paste is composed of Portland cement, water, and intrapped air or purposely entrained air. Cement paste ordinarily constitutes about 25% to 40% of the total volume of concrete. Since aggregates make up about 60% to 75% of the total volume of concrete, their selection is important. Aggregates should consist of particles with adequate strength and resistance to exposure conditions and should not contain materials that will cause deterioration of the concrete.
Aggregates are generally divided into two groups: fine and coarse. Fine aggregates consist of natural or manufactured sand with particle sizes ranging up to 3/8 inches; coarse aggregates are those with particles retained on the No.16 sieve and ranging up to 6 inches. The most commonly used maximum aggregate size is 3/4 inch or 1 inch. A continuous gradation of particle sizes is desirable for efficient use of the cement and water paste.
For any particular set of materials and conditions of curing, the quality of hardened concrete is determined by the amount of water used in relation to the amount of cement . Some advantages of reducing water content are: increased compressive and flexural strength, lower absorption, increased resistance to weathering, better bond between successive layers and between concrete and reinforcement, less volume change from wetting and drying, and reduced shrinkage cracking tendencies. The less water used, the better the quality of the concrete, provided it can be consolidated properly.
The freshly mixed (plastic) and hardened properties of concrete may be changed by adding admixtures to the concrete, usually in liquid form, during batching. Admixtures are commonly used to: adjust setting time or hardening, reduce water demand, increase workability, intentionally entrain air, and adjust other concrete properties (Kosmatka and Panarese 1-2).
After completion of proper proportioning, batching, mixing, placing, consolidating, finishing, and curing, hardened concrete becomes a strong, noncombustible, durable, abrasion-resistant, and practically impermeable building material that requires little or no maintenance. Concrete is also an excellent building material, because it can be formed into a wide variety of shapes, colors, and textures for use in almost unlimited number of applications.
Works Cited
ACement and concrete.@ The 1996 Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. CD-ROM. Danbury: Grolier, 1996.
Day, Richard. The Home Owner Handbook Of: Concrete and Masonry. New York: Bounty Books, No Copyright Date.
Kosmatka, Steven H., and William C. Panarese. Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures. Skokie, Ill.: Portland Cement Association, 1990.
Seymore, Dany. President of Show Low Ready Mix. Personal interview. 11 November 1996.
College of Mines Faculty, University of Arizona. Arizona: Its People and Resources. Tucson, AZ.: The University of Arizona Press, 1972.


By: Chris Ojeda

Argentina is a South American country with a population of thirty one million people. Argentina's capital is Buenos Aires, which is one of the largest cities in South America. Buenos Aires is situated on the coast of Argentina, which makes Buenos Aires a major trade route in Argentina and in South America. Argentina's national language is Spanish and the major religion is Roman Catholicism.
Argentina is a country with much natural beauty. It has miles of beautiful beaches and is also surrounded by the majestic Andes mountains. The Andes mountains are among the highest mountains in the world. Argentina's tallest mountain is the Cerro Aconcagua. This mountain reaches an amazing height of 22,200 ft. America's tallest mountain only reaches the height of 20,000 ft.
Argentina has a huge industrial and agricultural base. Argentina has a large amount of natural resources which includes copper, silver, coal, iron ore, uranium and petroleum. Argentina is the #1 copper producer in the world. Argentina also produces huge amounts of coal and is self sustained in petroleum products.
Argentina also grows much more food than it consumes. Its main crops include wheat, tobacco and cattle. Argentina ranks 3rd in the world among wheat exporters, right behind the United States and Canada. Argentina is also one of the largest tobacco exporters as well.
Argentina's large industrial and agricultural base makes it one of the richest countries in South America. With its rich history and its beautiful mountains and beaches, not to mention its wonderful Spanish culture, Argentina is a very special place to visit in South America.

Angina Pectoris

Tropical Africa: Food Production and the
Inquiry Model

Hunger is the result of disasters such as drought, floods, the
.changing of the jet stream patterns and other natural disasters
.They are beyond our control

It has been estimated that one third of the land in Tropical
Africa is potentially cultivable, though only about 6% of it is
,currently cultivated. However, to change farming from a low-input
low-yield pattern to a high-input, high-yield pattern necessitates
the use of more fertilizer and the planting of high-yielding
.varieties of crops

There are a number of environmental factors, related mostly to
.climate, soils and health, resisting easy developmental solutions
.Rainfall reliability is closely connected to rainfall quantity
The rainfall in the equatorial heart is very plentiful and
reliable. However, there is much less rainfall towards the outer
edges of the rain belt. Periodic and unpredictable droughts are a
.characteristic feature of these border zones
:There are three climatic zones in Tropical Africa
,1.a region of persistent rain at and near the Equator
2.a region on each side of this of summer rain and winter
drought, and
3.a region at the northern and southern edges afflicted by

All the climates listed in the previous paragraph are modified
in the eastern parts of Tropical Africa by the mountains and

The soils of Tropical Africa pose another problem. They are
unlike the soils of temperate areas. Soils are largely products of
their climates, and tropical soils are different from temperate
soils because the climate is different. Because of the great heat
,of the tropics tends to bake the soils, while on the other hand
the rainfall leaches them. The combined heat and moisture tend to
produce very deep soils because the surface rock is rapidly broken
down by chemical weathering. All this causes the food's rate of
growth to slow down or maybe even stop and as a result food
production won't even come close in catching up to the rate of
.population increase; therefore starvation and hunger is present
In the process of a flood and drought, the roots of trees are
shallow and virtually no nutrients are obtained from the soil. The
vegetation survives on its own humus waste, which is plentiful. If
the vegetation is cleared, then the source of humus is removed and
the natural infertility of the soils becomes obvious. As being
another factor, this will cause the soil to produce wasteful and
.useless products which in turn will decrease the production

To conclude this essay, the climates in Tropical Africa take
a big role as being factors that could endanger or destroy the
process of plantation. On the other hand, it could also bring good
.fortune if climatic regions are fairly good

An Essay on Mozambique

The country I have picked for my project is Mozambique in south Africa, and is

located near Zimbabwe, Namibia,

Its climate in January consists of a rainy season. The rains last for about 190 days in

the north but only 120 days in the south. In the cool season may to august temperatures

range from 16 deg c to 27 deg c (that is 60 dea to 80 dea F). In the hot season august to

November temperatures range 28 deg c to 32 deg c (85 deg f to 90 deg f ).

The country has a wealth of mineral resources , especially copper ,lead, zinc , and coal .

Copper accounts for more than 80% of this countries export earnings. The copperbelt

where four large copper mines and several smaller mines are located is where most

mining takes place it lies north of lusaka along the Zairian border . The many rivers near

the mines have valuable potential for hydroelectric power.

Its population is mostly black Africans who speak BANTU. The national language is

english. Most people are Christians, traditional local baliefs still have a strong hold on

village people. Also witchcraft and old customs such as marrying several wives and

paying the parents for a bride are slowly dying out in the towns. most children attend

elementary school. but only a fifth of them go to high school. It only has one university

which was founded in 1965.

Corn is the main food .Also a favorite dish is nshima, a thick porridge made from corn.

Facts about the country


Population : 8.745,284 m density: 12 persons per sq km.

Distribution: 43% urban , 57% rural.

Official language: English

Major religions: traditional, roman, Catholicism, and protestian.


Literacy: 81% of adult population.

Universities: 1

Life expectancy: women-59 men-55.



Government leader: Fredrick Chiluba.

Legislature: National Assembly.

Political subdivisions: nine provinces.


Railroads: 2164 kms total

Roads: 37359 kms total

Major airports: 1


Australia is the world's smallest continent and sixth-largest country. With proportionately more desert land than any other continent, Australia has a low population density. Lying completely in the Southern Hemisphere, Australia is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the west and south and by the Pacific Ocean on the east. These oceans merge on the north in the Arafura Sea between Australia and Indonesia and New Guinea, and on the south in the Bass Strait. The coastline length, estimated at 19,200 km (12,000 mi), is remarkably short for so large an area, a result of the relative lack of indentation. Major inlets other than the Gulf of CARPENTARIA and the GREAT AUSTRALIAN BIGHT are few.

A self-governing member of the Commonwealth of Nations, Australia celebrated its bicentennial in 1988z. It is a federation of five mainland states (NEW SOUTH WALES, QUEENSLAND, SOUTH AUSTRALIA, VICTORIA, WESTERN AUSTRALIA) and one island state (TASMANIA), as well as two territories (AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY, NORTHERN TERRITORY). The country's name derives from the Latin terra australis incognita, meaning "unknown southern land," which resulted from a confusion between Australia and Antarctica on early world maps.

In many ways Australia is unusual among continents. It lacks major relief features and has a high proportion of dry land. The continent's isolation from other landmasses accounts for its unique varieties of vegetation and animal life, and for the existence of a Paleolithic (Old Stone Age) culture among the Aborigines. Except for Antarctica, Australia was probably the last continent to be inhabited by humans and the last to be explored and settled by Europeans. It is the only continent comprising a single nation-state.

Dutch explorers first sighted Australia in the early 17th century. Capt. James COOK explored the east coast in 1770 and claimed the land for Great Britain. In 1778 the first settlement (SYDNEY) was founded at an excellent harbor on the southeast coast. British convicts played an important role in the territory's early history. The discovery of gold and other ores attracted immigrants, but Australia remained a primarily agricultural country until World War II.

Subsequent industrialization has been rapid, and today Australia ranks as one of the world's most economically developed countries, although vast areas of the interior, known as the Outback, remain all but uninhabited.

A trip to China

I went to China at 4th April, with my grandma and grandpa. That day, we got up at 7 o*clock in the morning. We went on the ship at 9:40am. When we reached China, we saw our relation, they saw us and helped us to carry the luggage. They are very kind to us.

After about 1 hour, traveled by car, we reached home, it was about 1 o*clock, we were very hungry, they*ve already cooked the lunch for us. After lunch, we walked around in the village . When we back home, we chatted until dinner was ready. There was on toilet there, so my grandpa and me cannot eat more and more although all things were very good.

After a terrible night, we went to another village. We went in the bus about 3 hours, after we reached there, it was about 4:30pm. I don*t think we could walked around the village again. The house that we lived was designed by my grandpa, we lived happily (very happy) there. -We had water, Town gas, light, TV * * Oh, great!

We went back to Hong Kong at 8th. After a the tea break at the pipe, we got onto the ship at 4:00pm. I thought I was too full, I was seasick! We reached home at exactly 6 o*clock. My mom was already cooked the dinner for us. After we enjoyed the dinner, I went back home. At home , I had a hot bath that it was one of the best enjoys in my life.

A trip through panama

Day 1:

We arrived at Omar Torrijos airport via American Airlines early in the afternoon. We purchased our required tourist cards (3 balboas, as US dollars are called in Panama) at the airport, then caught a taxi for the 18 mile ride to our downtown hotel. The ride in the battered, un-airconditioned car was rather expensive (30 balboas), but the driver spoke English and was very friendly. We arrived at the hotel and checked in. While my dad was checking in I bought a guidebook in the hotel lobby and read up on the history of Panama City. The original city was founded in 1519 by Pedro Arias Davila, known as Pedrarias the Cruel, because of his eradication of all but three of the local Indian tribes during his tenure in Panama. Davila used the city as a place to store Incan gold before it was shipped to Spain. The original city was sacked and burned in 1671 by a group of buccaneers led by Henry Morgan. The city was rebuilt within a year, this time on a peninsula 18 miles away and surrounded by a strong wall. This old Spanish city is now the in the middle downtown Panama City.
Panama City is an international melting pot and its eating choices range from American fast food to excellent internationall cuisine. Eager to begin our sightseeing, we grabbed lunch at a nearby McDonald's after checking in then caught a bus. The buses in Panama are a tourist attraction in themselves. They are brightly painted, hung with fringe, and have constantly blaring Salsa and Caracas music playing. They are cheap (50 cents a ride). but are very crowded. After asking several drivers "Donde va este autobus?" we finally found one going to the Plaza Independencia. This plaza is the main square of the colonial town and is bordered on one side by a cathedral with twin mother of pearl towers that took 108 years to complete. On two other sides it is bordered by the Archbishop's Palace, now a university and the Central Post Office. While in the old part of Panama City we also visited the Iglesia de San Jose and saw the Golden Aaltar. This altar was in the original Panama City and was saved from Henry Morgan's pirates by a monk who painted it black to disguise it. When we finished touring we returned to our hotel and then ate dinner at El Pez de Ora, one of the city' famous seafood restaurants.

Day 2:
We woke early and headed out for a morning of shopping at the Mercado Publico. I bought some jewelry and some small wooden figurines as souvenirs, but when I asked "Donde esta los sombreros de Panama?", the vendor told me Panama hats were made in Ecuador. The hat most commonly worn in Panama is the "pita", a narrow brimmed straw hat with black and white stripes. The most important phrases to remember when shopping in Panama are " Cuanto cuesta esta?" and " Acceptas tarjetas de credita?" After shopping we had Chinese food in one of the local restaurants.
After eating we went to visit Panama's most famous attraction, the Panama Canal. The Canal was completed in 1914, and is considered one of the greatest engineering feats in the world. We took a shuttle from our hotel to the canal and then went on a 90 minute train ride all the way across the isthmus along the canal. The railroad we were traveling on was built in 1855 to transport '49ers who were on their way to the California gold rush and was the first "trans-continental" rail link. At one of the train stations we got off and walked to the Miraflores Locks, sat on bleachers, and watched the ships go through the canal. After our tour of the Panama Canal we returned to our hotel to get ready for a night of dinner and theater. We ate dinner at an Italian restaurant then went to the Teatro National for a performance of the Folkloric Ballet. The Folkloric Ballet features native folk dances and costumes and was very entertaining.

Day 3:
We rented a car and left Panama City headed southwest along the Pan American Highway. First we visited the Parque Natural Metropolitana, a zoo on the outskirts of Panama with monkeys, deer, sloths, and iguanas. We then drove toward El Valle, about 75 miles away. El Valle is located in the center of a dormant volcano. There we saw hot springs, botanical gardens (with square trees which scientists have been unable to explain!), and golden frogs found nowhere else on earth. We continued down the highway passing through the towns of Penonome, the geographic center of Panama, and Nata, on of the oldest towns in Latin America. The Interior of Panama is mostly farmland and grazing land for cattle. We even saw some cowboys! At night we arrived at Baquette, a village on the side of the dormant Baru Volcano, where we spent the night.

Day 4:
We began our day by visiting Volcan Baru National Park and taking a short hike to see the beautiful plants and birds. The volcano is the highest point in Panama at 3475 meters. After our hike we ate lunch and then drove to Chiriqui Grande where we dropped off our car. We then caught a ferry to Bocas del Toro where we visited Bastimentos National Park. The park has pristine white sand beaches where sea turtles nest. The coral reefs off the coast are home to more than 200 species of tropical fish. While there we also got to visit caves containing the largest population of fruit eating bats in the world! Later we went snorkeling of the coast of Almirante Island where we spent the night.

Friday, January 4, 2013

What are the main contrasts to be found in Portugal

What are the main contrasts to be found in Portugal?

When answering a question such as this, one must primarily begin by pointing out that not only does Portugal have a great many contrasts within its land, but also that it contrasts greatly with the other Mediterranean countries. Portugal is not to be considered by any means as Spain's poor neighbour, nor should a shadow be cast over it by such a formidable nation. Portugal has a great deal to offer any visitor, it is not merely a tourist's paradise, yet this is regrettably how it is viewed by a large number of individuals. One must also not forget Portugal's history of being, in days gone by, one of the greater maritime nations, one of the more advanced exploring countries of Europe. Whilst Spain was occupied with discovering the Indias and consequently the Americas, Portugal was itself busy exploring Africa and making its own invaluable discoveries, although these are for the most part overlooked.

Being situated on the westernmost edge of Europe and the Iberian Peninsula, Portugal enjoys a relative privacy and independence from the rest of Mediterranean countries. Bordering on Spain on two sides and the sea on the others, the nation as naturally turned towards the sea, from which it draws both its strength and wealth and turned its back on its greatest rival, Spain. Due to its constant waves of invasion throughout the ages, Portugal is a vastly diverse land, not only in geographical terms but also in terms of heritage. It is true to say that Portugal does share a number of similarities with Spain, but it is by no means identical. Rather it is a nation which blends Moorish influences, British tradition and Mediterranean culture to form a truly unique land of peoples.

When considering the diversity of a country such as Portugal, the mention of which immediately conjures up a melange of images from North African to Western European, from hot and balmy weather to snow capped mountains, one must really begin by describing the two principle factors, those of climate and geography, which themselves are interwoven.
These in turn have a great effect on and to a certain extent bring about other differences which can be noted within the narrow confines of this nation, such as those of vegetation, economy and landscape.

On examining Portugal in terms of contrasting regions or areas, one must obviously have a starting point and that is generally considered to be a comparison between north and south, the River Tagus (Tejo) being the dividing line. However, Portugal can naturally be divided into three great natural regions, the North- West Atlantic, the North-East and the south. It is here that one truly becomes aware of substantial differences, therefore it is from this point where one must begin.

Although one might imagine the climate of Portugal to be almost the same as that of Spain, due to it geographical position this is not so. The country is much more open to the Atlantic winds which in the winter warming influence, ensuring temperatures seldom drop below seven degrees Celsius. In the summer, the opposite is the case, the Atlantic wind have cooling influence which maintains temperatures reasonably lower than the interior, where they can reach about forty two degrees Celsius.

Generally speaking, the high, mountainous land of the north enjoys a humid Atlantic climate which maintains the soil well-watered and fertile, making it possible for it to be covered in a rich mantle of vegetation. The south in comparison is far less mountainous, it is more gently rolling, the climate itself not being as extreme as in the north. The region known as the North-West Atlantic tends to have a rather plentiful amount of rainfall, whilst the North- East enjoys a more continental climate, whose extremes are felt both in the summer and in the winter.

Due to the variety of climates, which can be noted in Portugal, it should not be unusual to discover that the country also produces a number of a different crops, making the agriculture a considerable factor. Fishing, (Which was once the most important factor in the economy, but which sadly has become less so due to the introduction of EC regulations), textile,(also important since 1960s), and tourism, (which has unfortunately shown a decline in the last ten years due to the overdevelopment of the country and the deviation of holiday makers from Europe to other continents), are also major factors, which together make have always been of great importance to the country and carry on being so, although nowadays other factors have been added. These are all common to the country as a whole , but there are obviously regions where such produce is more easily grown and found.

One might easily decide to device Portugal once again into three parts, the three great natural regions which have previously been mentioned, yet contrast exist within such large areas that this is nor really feasible. It would be much easier to compare different regions of the country individually, because although some similarities may be noted, there are also a number of contrasts to be made.

The area around Coimbra and along the western coast of the country is one where the farming and fishing are the main sources of income. Along the coast, covered with extensive sand dunes, a small number of fishing villages still remain, whose catch regrettably is on a rather small scale. The farms which exist in this area are small, (the properties being divided amongst heirs), and their methods somewhat primitive compared with those elsewhere in the country, yet the crops which are produced are substantial. At low-level, crops such as maize, wheat and barely are produced. Fig trees are also kept and vines known as "vinhas de enforcar", (hanging vines), are grown everywhere in the fertile land of this region. At sea-level rice is grown and at high-level olive trees are kept which produce a good quality oil.
Salt is also plentiful in this region, which in turn means that this area of the country has all that it requires for salt preservation of fish right on its own door-step.

In the very north-east of the country, in Tars-os-montes, larger fields are used to produce cereal crops such as wheat, rye and barely, which are capable of withstanding harsher climates. However, in the northern area, more specifically in the Douro region, the winter climate is mild and the summers warm or hot. The infertile land found here makes it necessary for fields to be small and a variety of crops to be grown such as maize, and barely, along with potatoes, vegetables and chick-peas. At high altitude cherry and apple trees blossom, whilst at lower altitude near the coast, a few orange and apricot trees may be seen. Fishing around the coast is fairly important, with catches of sardines, tunny, crab and lamprey, plentiful.
Due to the mineral composition of the soil and intensity of the sunlight, a very special wine is produced in this area called " vinho maduro", otherwise called port wine, renowned for its sweetness. In Minho, in the northern most coastal corner of Portugal, a wine known as "vinho verde" is produced, its name coming from the greeness of the grapes. This is due partly to the fact that they are harvested slightly earlier than is usual and also to the fact that they are grown so close to the sea, where the Atlantic winds do not allow them to fully reach maturity.

The Douro region is one with a variety of economies, not only replying on agriculture as its source of income, but also on wine production, fishing and textile industry around Guimaraes, famous for being the chief centre for Portuguese linen. Also important are Braga, best known for its fine cotton, manufacture of firearms and cutlery and Oporto, renowned not only for its textile industry but also for its production of requirements for the wine industry, (bottles, corks and barrels). One could quite reasonably argue that it is here that one encounters the greatest contrasts to be found in Portugal, in this richly diverse region.

The areas along the coast of Portugal known as Estremadura and the Tagus Plains, one of the most ancient provinces, is the richest plain of the country, with intensely cultivated fields and an abundance of orchards and cork-oak woods. The climate of this picturesque region is extremely mild and the scenery immensely varied, made up of wild limestone, rocky cliffs and wooded hills. Much of the vast land is flat and low-lying and sparsely populated. the crops grown here, much the same as those further north are wheat, barley, maize and rice. Almost every farm grows its own vines and lemon, orange and olive trees. Livestock is also important to this area; along the River Tabus, bulls, reared for Portuguese bullfighting , graze and in the Ribatejo area, fine horses are bred. The fishing industry along this cost is important as is fish preserving, due to cheap labour, the proximity and high quality of the olive oil (produced at Abrantes) and cheap salt which is evaporated near by.

South of Lisbon, the landscape begins to take on a different aspect. Alentejo, nearest to the Tabus, begins by being made up valleys. Its climate is rather more continental than regions further west, encouraging the growth of pine trees, whose products: resin, turpentine, and pit props, have been an important element of the economy. Cork-oak trees are of mayor significance to this area as they make up a large and valuable export for the nation.
Cereals produced here are primarily wheat, barley and maize, which are grown in small plots around the more plentiful cork and olive trees. The land, in contrast to regions further north, such as the Douro Valley, is not divided into small parcels, rather it is divided into vast estates, limiting both the number of crops and their variety.

The Algarve is another rather diverse region in itself. It is geographically divided into two separate areas, made up of mountains in the north and relatively flat coastal lands. The weather here is mild, with warm winters, scant rainfalls and sunny skies, making it natural paradise for tourists from northern Europe. The region however, is not merely appealing solely for its tourism value, agriculture of fresh fruit, ( oranges, peaches, pomegranates, bananas, plantains, figs and almonds), olives, cereals, (wheat, barley and maize) is also encouraged. Fishing of sardines, anchovies, and tunny, and in the coastal waters, of shell-fish, lobster and crayfish are also important, as is intense garden cultivation.

One can see how vastly diverse Portugal is, not only from its other Mediterranean counterparts but also within its own confines. It is the geography and climate, which are responsible various regions, although some similarities may be observed. One would not find it possible, when viewing the nation in terms of contrasts, not to draw comparisons between the produce and economies of the different regions and merely discuss climate and geography in a general manner, as this would be glossing over the question and not portraying Portugal in its true form. However, in order to fully appreciate the diversity of this land, one must visit the country and see for oneself, by exploring it not interested in discovering more about the land, the culture and the people which make up Portugal, not merely by lying on the beaches of the Algarve.

British Admiralty
(Naval Int. Division) Spain & Portugal Vol. 2 1942

Gottmann, Jean A Geography of Europe 1969

Hoffman, George W. A Geography of Europe 1969

Way, Ruth A Geography of Spain & 1962

Thursday, January 3, 2013

World Demographic Development and Food Supply

1.) The Neolithic and Industrial Revolutions

The two changes in the use of the earth's resources that had the greatest effect on the world population were
the neolithic and the industrial revolutions.

The neolithic revolution (a.k.a. agricultural revolution) was a change in the way of life of our ancestors. It
took place about 8000 years ago among various tribes in Asia and the Middle East. It included a transition
from foraging and hunting to the domestication of animals (most probably starting with the dog) and to
farming. Tribes settled in fertile areas and formed agricultural communities many of which grew into villages
and cities. This relatively stable way of life and the more reliable food supply (and surplus) led to the
development of new professions, to labor specialization and ultimately to the stratification of these societies.
Improved conditions of life led to somewhat longer life spans. Nevertheless population growth remained low
due to high infant mortality rates. The impact of the neolithic revolution was not as much on immediate
population growth (even though it did have a long term impact on population growth) as on the material and
spiritual development of the human race. It is widely regarded as the beginning of civilization.
Industrial revolution was another process of change. It was the process of substituting muscle power with
machine power. It took place in the 18th century in Europe and is still happening in many parts of the world.
In many characteristics it has been similar to the neolithic revolution: it increased production, it led to the
use of resources that had been mostly unused until then and it improved the overall quality of life. It also led
to changes in the structure of society.
What was different, was its impact on population growth. It was quick and easily noticeable. Advanced
sanitation, hygiene and medicine led to longer life spans and declining death rates, with the birth rates
remaining high. This resulted in a high rate of population growth that still continues in many countries.
The information revolution is the process of change that began in the second half of the 20th century in the
developed countries of the world. It is the process of substituting "brain power" with "machine power". It
leads to increased production and has the potential to create a more even distribution of the world's
population on the surface of the earth. It also has the potential to decrease the differences between the less
developed and the highly developed nations of the world. Then again it also has the potential to increase
those differences. It causes changes in the structure of society. Many of its impacts are still to be

2.) Thomas Malthus

Thomas Robert Malthus, an English economic thinker published a theory in 1798 concerning the relationship
between population growth and food supply. He said that population always increases exponentially, while
food supplies increase only arithmetically. He advocated that moral restraints can not be implemented on the
scale of the whole population because most individuals are will seek their own pleasure ignoring the global
impacts of their actions. The growing population will therefore put a strain on the limited food resources
that will lead to wars, famine and disease, decreasing the population thus restoring the equilibrium.
I think it is obvious that the first part of his theory, while it does apply to certain countries, proved to be
completely wrong on a global scale. There is no world-wide calorie deficit. The "food supply increase to
population increase" ratio is substantially higher in the developed world than in the less developed countries.
On a global scale, current food supplies do exceed the needs of the world's population, but they are not
distributed in a way that benefits the whole population. Fortunately international programs aimed at
achieving a better distribution of food resources do make an impact in decreasing the calorie deficit, and it is
quite likely that the inhabitants and the leaders of the developed nations will eventually come to the
conclusion that it is better to "share some" than to risk loosing all. So, even where moral restraints don't
work, common sense just might have a chance.

3.) Population Growth, Demographics

A.) In the early prehistoric times (1 million years ago) there were no more humans on the whole earth than
in a modern American town (such as Provo). For a long time the growth rate was slow. The difficulties of
obtaining food, the lack of sanitation or advanced medicine, the living conditions in general meant short life
spans (20-25 years in average) and a high death rate. Even the largest communities (tribes) rarely exceeded
100 people.

B.) The neolithic revolution about 8000 years ago meant that tribes began to domesticate animals and plant
food crops. Tribes settled and developed into larger communities. The reliable food source and relatively
peaceful existence led to the development of many new professions and inventions. It also led to the division
of society into different classes (peasants, artisans, rulers, etc.). The continuing process of advances in
technology led to faster population growth and by the time of Christ the world's population numbered more
than half of the current population of the USA.

C.) The different rates of population growth in various areas of the world, the different levels of
development (nomadic vs. civilized) and the differences in the availability of resources led to numerous
migrations over the centuries.
- Asian tribes moved to the west and south (5th century BC - 16th century AD);
- Europeans colonized large areas of the Americas, Australia and the Pacific region, India and Africa;
- African slaves were bought and taken to the Americas and to Arabic and Turkish areas;
- Russians "colonized" the eastern reaches of Eurasia.
By the 18th century the world's population numbered about the same as the current population of the whole
American continent. (Heavy population decrease occurred during the Black Death in Europe and South-
Eastern Asia.)

D.) In the 18th century AD, technological development finally reached a level where it became possible to
substitute muscle power with machines in many areas. A virtual chain reaction of inventions began.
Increased production, advances in medicine and other areas resulted in increased life expectancy and
decreased death rates with the birth rates remaining high. This led to noticeably faster population growth.

E.) Finally in this century the developed countries experienced a decline in birthrates and thus a slowing
population growth. Many countries of the world, mostly the less developed ones have not yet achieved this
stage. Most of today's highly developed countries were able to exploit the resources of the less developed
nations of Africa and Asia long enough to give time for the impacts of the higher standards of living, longer
life spans and abundant resources to change the attitude of these nations and result in decreased population
growth. The less developed countries of the world have no other nations to exploit. Most often the
improvements in technology simply lead to population increase that "eats up" the fruits of the improvements,
making further development and investment nearly impossible.

It is especially important to understand that we all live on the same planet. Cooperation and assistance to the
developing nations are usually cheaper than another set of missile defenses...

4.) Migrations

Europeans traveled to America, Africa, India, Australia and New Zealand. These were the migrations that
were the most important of this period. They allowed the ever growing population of Europe to find a new
habitat. These migrations resulted in European dominance of these newly colonized territories and spread
the fast pace of technological development experienced in Europe to all the continents (although in varying

The migration of Europeans to the Americas was soon followed by a flow of African slaves (as many as 20
million) who provided cheap labor. African slaves were also sold in Arab and Turkish areas.

The eastward migration of Russians is also to be noted. The interaction with and the "colonization" of
territories east and southeast of Russia (Siberia, Caspian region, Caucasian region, etc.) ultimately led to the
formation of a much larger empire.

5.) Stages of Demographic Transition

"Demographic transition" is a process of population change that can be divided into four stages.

a.) Before the industrial revolution the majority of the world experienced low life expectancy, high birth
rates and high death rates resulting in slow population growth;

b.) Western Europe entered the second stage with the onset of the industrial revolution in the 18th century
while other parts of the world entered it later, when they, too had either made technological advances or the
benefits of industrialization were introduced to them by more developed countries. This stage is
characterized by longer life expectancy, high birth rates and declining or low death rates, resulting in a
high and continuous increase in population.

c.) With changes occurring in the "value" of children as opposed to their costs many industrialized countries
have entered stage three. It is characterized by long life expectancy, rapidly declining birth rates and low
death rates, resulting in slow growth rates, similar to the rates in the first stage.

d.) Some industrialized countries have progressed even further and have entered the fourth stage. It is
usually characterized by long life expectancy*, low birth rates and low death rates, with the birthrates
sometimes falling below the death rates, resulting in minimal population growth or no growth at all and
sometimes even a population decline.

Countries in the second stage of demographic transition experience great difficulties in technological
development because improvements result in larger population that automatically negates the benefits of
those improvements. Many of these nations make great efforts to educate their people about the benefits of
small families and the negative impact of large families.

6.) Comparing the 5 most populated countries of the world; birth/death rate, lifespan, income.

- Among the five most populated countries of the world India has the highest birth rate, while the birth rate
in Africa is an average 50% higher than in India.
- Among the five most populated countries of the world India also has the highest death rate, while the death
rate in Africa is an average 20% higher than in India.
- Among the five most populated countries of the world Indonesia has the lowest life expectancy; life
expectancy in Africa is almost the same as in Indonesia.
- Among the five most populated countries of the world China has the lowest per capita income; more than
half of the African nations have a per capita income lower than in China. The average, however, is about
twice as high due to a few mineral rich countries.