Sunday, March 3, 2013


You read in newspapers daily and watch on T.V. or
hear others talking about weather. You must know
that weather is about day to day changes in the
atmosphere. It includes changes in temperature,
rainfall and sunshine etc. For example, as such it may
be hot or cold; sunny or cloudy; windy or calm. You
must have noticed that when it is hot continued for
several days you don’t need any warm clothing. You
also like to eat or drink cold things. In contrast there
are days together, you feel cold without woollen clothes
when it is very windy and chilly, you would like to
have something hot to eat.
Broadly, the major seasons recognised in India are:
• Cold Weather Season (Winter) December to
• Hot Weather Season (Summer) March to May
• Southwest Monsoon Season (Rainy)
June to September
• Season of Retreating Monsoon (Autumn) October
and November


During the winter season, cool, dry winds blow from
north to the south. The sun rays do not fall directly in
the region as a result, the temperatures are quite low
in northern India.


In the hot weather season sun rays more or less directly
fall in this region. Temperature becomes very high.
Hot and dry winds called loo, blow during the day.


This season is marked by the onset and advance of
monsoon. The winds blow from Arabian Sea and Bay
of Bengal towards the land. They carry moisture with
them. When these winds strike the mountain barriers,
rainfall occurs.


Winds move back from the mainland to the Bay of
Bengal. This is the season of the retreating monsoons.
The southern parts of India, particularly Tamil Nadu
and Andhra Pradesh receive rainfall in this season.
However, the climate is about the average weather
condition, which have been measured over many years.
The climate of India has broadly been described as
Monsoon type. Monsoon is taken from the Arabic word
‘mausim’, which means seasons. Due to India’s location
in the tropical region, most of the rain is brought by
monsoon winds. Agriculture in India is dependent on
rains. Good monsoons mean adequate rain and a
bountiful crop.

The climate of a place is affected by its location,
altitude, distance from the sea, and relief. Therefore,
we experience regional differences in the climate of
India. Jaisalmer and Bikaner in the desert of Rajasthan
are very hot, while Drass and Kargil in Jammu and
Kashmir are freezing cold. Coastal places like Mumbai
and Kolkata experience moderate climate. They are
neither too hot nor too cold. Being on the
coast, these places are very humid.
Mawsynram in Meghalaya receives the
world’s highest rainfall, while in a
particular year it might not rain at all in
Jaisalmer in Rajasthan.


We see a variety of plant life in our
surroundings. How nice it is to play in a
field with green grasses. There are also
small plants called bushes and shrubs like
cactus and flowering plants etc. Besides
there are many tall trees some with many
branches and leaves like neem, mango or
some which stand with few leaves such as
palm. The grasses, shrubs and trees, which
grow on their own without interference or
help from human beings are called natural
vegetation. Do you wonder how these differ
from each other. Different types of natural
vegetation are dependent on different
climatic conditions, among which the
amount of rainfall is very important.
Due to varied climatic conditions, India
has a wide range of natural vegetation.
Vegetation of India can be divided into five
types – Tropical evergreen forest, Tropical
deciduous forest, Thorny bushes,
Mountain vegetation and Mangrove


Tropical Rain Forests occur in the areas
which receive heavy rainfall. They are so
dense that sunlight doesn’t reach the ground.
Many species of trees are found in these forests,
which shed their leaves at different times of the year. As a result, they always appear green and are
called evergreen forest look at the Figure 8.1.
Important trees found in these forests are
mahogany, ebony and rosewood. Andaman and
Nicobar Islands, parts of North-Eastern states and
a narrow strip of the Western slope of the Western
Ghats are home of these forests.