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Relief: Ethiopia consists mainly of Desert and Mountains. Many valleys and plateau¹s also can be found in the country. Due to these landform types the percentage of farm land is approximately 5.7% of the total amount of land in Ethiopia. The amount of arable land is 10% of the 5.7% total. Ethiopia has an area of 1 221 900 sq. km. Ethiopia does not receive any problems such as volcanism, tidal waves, etc., but it does receive great winds and monsoons. It is located in Eastern Africa neighboured by Sudan (NW), Kenya(S), and Somalia(SE). Elevations can be seen on figure 1, and the physical features of Ethiopia on figure 2.
Climate: The Climate in Ethiopia is of three different climatic zones. These being the cool or dega zone, consisting of the central parts of the western and eastern sections of the high plateaus and the area around Harar, with terrains roughly above 7 900 ft. in elevation. The second zone is the temperate, or weina dega zone, comprising portions of the high plateau between 4 900 and 7 900 ft.. The final area being the hot or kolla zone, encompassing an area with an altitude less than 5 000 ft. The cool zones temperatures and precipitation can be seen on figure 3. The temperate zones temperatures range from 15.6C to 29.4C. The temperature in the hot zone of the lowlands can reach temperatures as high as 60C.
There are two distinct seasons in Ethiopia the rainy season, or kremt, lasting from mid-June to mid-semptember. the other is the Dry season, or bega, lasting from mid-September to mid-June. In April and May there is slight transition period. The greatest amount of precipitation is found in the southwest areas, near gore. They receive approx. 104 in. a year. The littlest amount of precipitation is found in the Great Rift Valley receiving less than 4 inches per year. the average annual precipitation in the central plateau at 48 in.
The prevailing winds that strike Ethiopia are the Southwesterly monsoon in the rainy season and the northeasterly wind from the Arabian Desert in the dry season.
Ethiopia¹s climatic conditions suffer severe drought jeopardizing millions with starvation. These extreme weather changes create horrible growing seasons, making yields quite unsuccessful.
Vegetation: The percentage of forest land is minimal in Ethiopia, most of the area is grazed dry farmland, and some generally arable land. Near areas where beef cattle are being raised tsete flies can be found in great numbers. They spread a sleeping disease, that in turn wear down farmers, and create less productivity, and more disease than needed. Another insect that causes severe problems are locusts. They are considered the plague of Ethiopia, eating, therefore ruining crops. Due to lack of money Ethiopia does not have sufficient preservation facilities, and much of there food rots and goes to waste. Rodents also get into crops and eat whatever is at hand.
Soils: Almost all of Ethiopia¹s soils are made up of infertile red and yellow laterite. Humus and other nutrients are washed out of the soils and into the rivers. Much land is lost from erosion and desertification, from constant over grazing and loss of trees.
Wildlife: I couldn¹t find any information on Ethiopia¹s wildlife, but I would suspect it is minimal. Small amounts of cattle and ox.
Race: Ethiopia is quite unique for the number of races throughout the country. These races are shown on figure 4.
Languages: In Ethiopia there are over 70 languages and 200 dialects spoken, but only eight of the languages are commonly used. Amharic is the official language of Ethiopia. Tigrinya and Arabic are the official languages of Eritrea. These are the only three languages with a written script. Due to the number of languages, many Ethiopians are bilingual and even trilingual. See figure 4.
Religions: Due to all these different religions many problems arise, such as which religion should be the inferior religion? Around 1931 Emperor Haile Selassie ruled. When the emperor was overthrown the Ethiopian Orthodox Church lost its favoured position, along with its lands and most of its property. Other religions, particularly Western Protestant evangelical organizations, have found their activities sharply curtailed by the government. this has been displayed through closure of churches, seizure and nationalization of property and facilities, and harassment and surveillance. Some religions have assembled ³secret areas² for worship and other
practices of there religion. See figure 4.
Population: The population in Ethiopia is extremely high, with a vastly increasing birthrate. Forms of family planning are not used steadily, if at all. The population can be seen in figure 5 and past and future estimations of Ethiopia¹s population can be seen in figure 6.
Housing and Clothing: Homes outside of the city are primarily made of a mud/straw mixture. These homes obviously contain no electricity, or insulation. All forms of heating would be done by man made fires, or some form of wood stove. Due to the poor nature of the country nothing else is affordable. Clothing consists of a loin cloth for men, and for women some form of cloth is wrapped around the body. In the city houses are typically made of cement with a tin roof. Here you may find small amounts of electricity for heating and cooking, but nothing much more. Some wealthy families may have a television etc. In the city most people wear Western clothing.
Diet: If the area is not getting foreign aid of any sort the meals, if any, consist of a food called injera. This is a pancake like sour bread of spongelike texture made chiefly with teff, a cereal grain. Other foods include wat, a beef or chicken sauce or stew made with hot spices. The universal drink is talla, a beer fermented from barley, and the leaves of the gesho plant. Taj, a fermented honey beverage, is consumed by the wealthier classes. Raw mature meat is relished, but fish is not popular. Locusts are
eaten by some cultures.
Many of the Ethiopian people are suffering from mass starvation. reasons for the lack of food in Ethiopia are: Over Population, caused by lack of use of family planning. 2.Poor Soils, most of the U.D.C.¹s have infertile red and yellow laterite. 3.Variable Climates 4.Poor Distribution, 5.Food Destruction, 6.Tools and Technology: lack of proper farming equipment, to obtain successful yields., 8. Ignorance, 9.Food Taboos, 10.Poor Seeds. These are only a few of the problems involved with lack of food in Ethiopia. Unfortunately most of the quality food in Ethiopia is grown by latifundia, and is exported to other countries.
Jobs: Jobs are very sparse, and if found, involve intense backbreaking work, at a minimal cost. Due to the amount of unemployed people, practically any form of work
thrown at them will be taken. Latifundia offer jobs to occupants, such as coffee bean and cotton picking, and they pay them pennies an hour. Some of these jobs are extremely far from home, breaking up families for weeks. Others are self-employed farmers, or do not work at all.
Health: Health care in Ethiopia gets slightly better as years pass, but still only a small portion of the population receives it. Famine care is immensely small, and needs great improvement. The most commonly found diseases in Ethiopia are malaria, tuberculosis, leprosy, venereal diseases, smallpox, typhus, typhoid, trachoma, conjunctivitis, and sexually transmitted diseases. Also see figures 7 and 8 for a further look at health speculations.
Education & Welfare: Education in Ethiopia is not compulsory by law, but public education is free from the primary to the college level. The schooling consists of 12 years divided into six years of primary school, two years of middle school and four years of secondary school. The literacy rate is extremely low at approx. 4.9% of the total population. Literacy has been steadily increasing though in the past few years. Ethiopia has been awarded the literacy price from UNESCO from it¹s success. Further aspects of education can be seen in figure 9.
In Ethiopia there are no official welfare programs available. Existing public programs are run by voluntary religious groups only. Due to this lack of support, this is one reason for vast cases of starvation.
Quality of Life: The Quality of life in Ethiopia is horrible. There is a major shortage of food, and very few jobs. Due to poor vegetation and soil, food growth is a minimal. All work is usually backbreaking slave labour, and the main priorities of an Ethiopian is survival.
Development: Ethiopia is a developing country. Its level of development is extremely poor and slow, and isn¹t getting much better.
Economy: Ethiopia continues to face difficult economic problems as one of the
poorest and least developed countries in Africa. Its Economy is based chiefly on agriculture and weather plays a major factor in success rates. Development is slow and doesn¹t look very promising. Manufacturing suffers from under investment, shortages of raw material and poor management.
Standard of Living: The GNP of Ethiopia is 114 per capita, being extremely low, and intolerable for any form of adequate survival. The level of living in turn is substantially low. Urban Areas tend to be slightly better than rural, but not by much.GNP insights can be seen in depth on figure 10.
Industries: The primary Industry of Ethiopia is Agriculture, employing roughly 85% of the country¹s workers. The rest of the working population is broken down to 10% in service industries, and the final 5% in manufacturing. The products produced in the service industries and the manufacturing industries can be seen in figure 11 and 12.
Industrial Location: There are approximately 8 main natural resources and 1 raw material found in abundance in Ethiopia. This is shown in figure 12 and 13. Two thirds of the power is provided through hydroelectricity, making Ethiopia one of the least dependent on outside sources of energy in Africa. Ethiopia has two narrow-gauge railways, two seaports, and National highways that connect major population centers in the central plateau and Eritrea. This is only a small portion of Ethiopia¹s transportation systems. Most of the country is made up of unpaved or uncrossable roads, making transportation slow and inefficient. The ratio of people to automobiles is 811:1. The labour involved is monotonous and backbreaking. The people are paid pennies for days work, and are usually situated in inadequate working facilities. There are very few markets to purchase clothing etc.. Ethiopia¹s capital is very low, and they do receive foreign aid and tariffs.
Industrial Problems: Ethiopia suffers a great deal, with environmental problems. Areas that have been strip mined, grazed etc., have been left with no clean up what so ever. In doing so the appearance of the area is very poor. Pollution caused by heavy machinery is very low, because there isn¹t any, but scrap and soot levels are high.There are no forms of pollution control, and no pollution or dumping laws are enforced.
Agriculture: The agricultural industry is extremely important to Ethiopia. It makes up 85% of the jobs given to the people. Only 10% of the land area is currently under cultivation, and it accounts for 47% of the GDP even though drought, poor cultivation, and many other factors effect productivity. The main types of crops grown are shown in figure 14. Most methods of farming are done naturally, and traditional, by the sun and rain, or as there ancestors before. Pesticides, Fertilizers, and Herbicides are too expensive, and are used, if at all, in small amounts making them almost useless. Most crops are planted manually, due to the lack of money. Tools are handmaid, and ox are used for plowing fields. Only Latifundia can afford efficient forms of harvesting, with expensive materials, and machinery. There is no land distribution to any of the people. Most lands are obtained through inheritance, from family members that have owned it for generations. Education levels for agricultural techniques are very low. All knowledge in farming is typically learned by ancestors, or by ³winging it². There is very
Form of Government: Ethiopia is said to be a transitional government, but is also known as a republic country. There current leader is Meles Zenawi. It is a very unstable country that has had its share of civil wars, there last leader was practically driven out of parliament. Elections don¹t really exist. The people of Ethiopia are very limited with there rights and freedoms. Ethiopia has been classified as a not-free country. There is a very low value on human rights.
Internal Conflicts: Ethiopia has had many civil revolts. This can be seen in the Ethiopian History line, figure 15. Many Ethiopians try to migrate to better there standards of living, in hope of a brighter future. Most of the population is extremely poor, with the odd family being better off. Most Ethiopians are considered lower class citizens, that receive little respect if any.
Trade: Ethiopia has about 7 main imports and 5 major exports, that can be seen in figure 16. The balance of trade is roughly -$617 000 000. The money they receive for there exports is minimal. Exporting partners are: US, Germany, Djivouti, Japan, Yemen, France, and Italy. There major importers are: USSR, Italy, Germany, Japan, UK, US, and France. The stability of there currency is unstable, and not very promising.
International Co-operation: Ethiopia gives no aid to other countries, because it needs aid itself. They receive foreign aid, from the US, Canada and other countries. Food donations from the food bank, farmers, small organizations with excess¹ of food, and other charity organizations donate a portion of items each year. Many programs are also run where families ³adopt² a child. If done a donation of money is sent to the country to give a poor child blankets, clothes, and possibly a toy. Other organizations include the UN, IRRA, and FAO.
International Conflict: Ethiopia neighbours Sudan, Somalia, and Kenya. Currently there are no border problems, but attempts of migration are always present. Other border problems can be seen in the history line of Ethiopia on figure 15.
Future: All in all the future of Ethiopia is very poor. Due to little or no family planning the birth rate is still high. The inability to produce enough food for its vastly growing population, still creates mass starvation. The government does not seem to be planning any propositions of future hope, making chances of improvement almost inevitable.
Colombo, John Robert, ed. 1996 Canadian Global Almanac. Toronto: Macmillian Canada 1996.
³Ethiopia Famine.²Ethiopia: Case Study. Internet. http://rs6.loc.gov/et_00_00.html. 1996
³Ethiopia.² Information Finder. Vers.2.6. Computer Software. World Book, Inc., 1996
Kurian, George Thomas, ed. Encyclopedia of the Third World. New York: Facts on File, 1992
Wright, Hohn W., ed. 1996 Universal Almanac, Kansas City: 1995 Universal Press Syndicate.